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Espinosa M.,National Institute of Genomic Medicine | Ceballos-Cancino G.,National Institute of Genomic Medicine | Callaghan R.,University of Oxford | Maldonado V.,National Institute of Cancerology | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2012

Survivin is an important member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) family and has essential roles in apoptosis and cell cycle progression. This gene is commonly upregulated in human cancer and provides an exciting diagnostic and therapeutic target. Survivin is expressed as several isoforms that are generated by alternative splicing, and some of these present antagonistic activities. Currently, information regarding the regulation of these isoforms is lacking. In this study, we sought to analyze survivin Delta Ex3 expression in a three-dimensional model of avascular tumors and its overexpression effects in processes such as proliferation, clonogenicity and apoptosis. We found a positive correlation between spheroid growth and survivin Delta Ex3 expression during the exponential phase. We demonstrated that this isoform not only decreased apoptosis but also inhibited tumor spheroid formation by decreasing proliferation and clonogenic survival. These results point toward a dual and antagonistic effect of this spliced survivin isoform in cancer development. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


de la Cruz O.H.,Autonomous University of Mexico City | Muniz-Lino M.,Autonomous University of Mexico City | Guillen N.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Guillen N.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2014

Actin cytoskeleton is an essential structure involved in cell migration and invasion in parasites. In Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite causing human amoebiasis, the mechanisms underlying the expression of migration-related genes are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the biological effects of ectopic overexpression of EhPC4 (positive coactivator 4) in cell migration of E. histolytica trophozoites. Using differential in gel two-dimensional electrophoresis, 33 modulated proteins were detected in EhPC4-overexpressing cells. By electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analysis, 16 of these proteins were identified. Interestingly, four up-regulated proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization and cell migration were identified. Particularly, we found the up-regulation of a 16-kDa actin-binding protein (EhABP16) which is a putative member of the cofilin/tropomyosin family involved in actin polymerization. EhPC4 overexpression induced a significant increase in migration of trophozoites and in the destruction of human SW480 colon cells. Consistently, silencing of gene expression by RNA interference of EhABP16 significantly impairs cell migration. These changes were associated to alterations in the organization of actin cytoskeleton, and suppression of uropod-like structure formation in EhABP16-deficient cells. In summary, we have uncovered novel proteins modulated by EhPC4, including EhABP16, with a potential role in cell migration, cytopathogenicity and virulence in E. histolytica. Biological significance: The human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica infects around 50. million people worldwide resulting in 40,000-100,000 deaths annually. Cell motility is a complex trait that is critical for parasites adaptation, spread and invasion processes into host tissues; it has been associated with virulence. In this study, we used a differential proteomic approach to demonstrate that E. histolytica EhPC4 induces changes in the expression of actin cytoskeleton proteins, including EhABP16, promoting a significant increase in cell motility and destruction of intestinal human cells. Particularly, we demonstrated for the first time that abrogation of EhABP16 impairs cell migration by altering the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and uropod-like structure formation in trophozoites. These data contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms that regulate virulence properties in this neglected protozoan parasite.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics, mass spectrometry and peptidomics, Cancun 2013. Guest Editors: César López-Camarillo, Victoria Pando-Robles and Bronwyn Jane Barkla. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Daniels-Wells T.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Helguera G.,University of California at Los Angeles | Helguera G.,University of Buenos Aires | Leuchter R.K.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 10 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA), often found at high levels in the serum of PCa patients, has been used as a marker for PCa detection and as a target of immunotherapy. The murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody AR47.47, specific for human PSA, has been shown to enhance antigen presentation by human dendritic cells and induce both CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation when complexed with PSA. In this study, we explored the properties of a novel mouse/human chimeric anti-PSA IgE containing the variable regions of AR47.47 as a potential therapy for PCa. Our goal was to take advantage of the unique properties of IgE in order to trigger immune activation against PCa.Methods: Binding characteristics of the antibody were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry. In vitro degranulation was determined by the release of β-hexosaminidase from effector cells. In vivo degranulation was monitored in human FcεRIα transgenic mice using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. These mice were also used for a vaccination study to determine the in vivo anti-cancer effects of this antibody. Significant differences in survival were determined using the Log Rank test. In vitro T-cell activation was studied using human dendritic cells and autologous T cells.Results: The anti-PSA IgE, expressed in murine myeloma cells, is properly assembled and secreted, and binds the antigen and FcεRI. In addition, this antibody is capable of triggering effector cell degranulation in vitro and in vivo when artificially cross-linked, but not in the presence of the natural soluble antigen, suggesting that such an interaction will not trigger systemic anaphylaxis. Importantly, the anti-PSA IgE combined with PSA also triggers immune activation in vitro and in vivo and significantly prolongs the survival of human FcεRIα transgenic mice challenged with PSA-expressing tumors in a prophylactic vaccination setting.Conclusions: The anti-PSA IgE exhibits the expected biological properties and is capable of triggering immune activation and anti-tumor protection. Further studies on this antibody as a potential PCa therapy are warranted. © 2013 Daniels-Wells et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Hernandez-Monge J.,CINVESTAV | Garay E.,CINVESTAV | Raya-Sandino A.,CINVESTAV | Vargas-Sierra O.,CINVESTAV | And 5 more authors.
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2013

We have studied the expression of the tight junction proteins (TJ) occludin, claudin-1 and ZO-2 in the epidermis of female mice. We observed a peak of expression of these proteins at postnatal day 7 and a decrease in 6 week-old mice to values similar to those found in newborn animals. We explored if the expression of the E6 oncoprotein from high-risk human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) in the skin of transgenic female mice (K14E6), altered TJ protein expression in a manner sensitive to ovarian hormones. We observed that in ovariectomized mice E6 up-regulates the expression of occludin and ZO-2 in the epidermis and that this effect was canceled by 17β-estradiol. Progesterone instead induced occludin and ZO-2 over-expression. However, the decreased expression of occludin and ZO-2 induced by 17β-estradiol in the epidermis was not overturned by E6 or progesterone. In addition, we employed MDCK cells transfected with E6, and observed that ZO-2 delocalizes from TJs and accumulates in the cell nuclei due to a decrease in the turnover rate of the protein. These results reinforce the view of 17β-estradiol and E6 as risk factors for the development of cancer through effects on expression and mislocalization of TJ proteins. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Diaz-Chavez J.,National Institute of Cancerology | Fonseca-Sanchez M.A.,Autonomous University of Mexico City | Arechaga-Ocampo E.,National Institute of Cancerology | Flores-Perez A.,Autonomous University of Mexico City | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The use of chemopreventive natural compounds represents a promising strategy in the search for novel therapeutic agents in cancer. Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trans-trihydroxystilbilene) is a dietary polyphenol found in fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants that exhibits chemopreventive and antitumor effects. In this study, we searched for modulated proteins with preventive or therapeutic potential in MCF-7 breast cancer cells exposed to resveratrol. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we found significant changes (FC >2.0; p≤0.05) in the expression of 16 proteins in resveratrol-treated MCF-7 cells. Six down-regulated proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), translationally-controlled tumor protein, peroxiredoxin-6, stress-induced-phosphoprotein-1, pyridoxine-5′-phosphate oxidase-1 and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; whereas one up-regulated protein was identified as triosephosphate isomerase. Particularly, HSP27 overexpression has been associated to apoptosis inhibition and resistance of human cancer cells to therapy. Consistently, we demonstrated that resveratrol induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Apoptosis was associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release in cytoplasm, and caspases -3 and -9 independent cell death. Then, we evaluated the chemosensitization effect of increasing concentrations of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin anti-neoplastic agent in vitro. We found that resveratrol effectively sensitize MCF-7 cells to cytotoxic therapy. Next, we evaluated the relevance of HSP27 targeted inhibition in therapy effectiveness. Results evidenced that HSP27 inhibition using RNA interference enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. In conclusion, our data indicate that resveratrol may improve the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in part by cell death induction. We propose that potential modulation of HSP27 levels using natural alternative agents, as resveratrol, may be an effective adjuvant in breast cancer therapy. © 2013 Díaz-Chávez et al. Source

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