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Schwartzentruber D.J.,Health Goshen Center for Cancer Care | Lawson D.H.,Emory University | Richards J.M.,Oncology Specialists | Conry R.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 21 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Stimulating an immune response against cancer with the use of vaccines remains a challenge. We hypothesized that combining a melanoma vaccine with interleukin-2, an immune activating agent, could improve outcomes. In a previous phase 2 study, patients with metastatic melanoma receiving high-dose interleukin-2 plus the gp100:209-217(210M) peptide vaccine had a higher rate of response than the rate that is expected among patients who are treated with interleukin-2 alone. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, phase 3 trial involving 185 patients at 21 centers. Eligibility criteria included stage IV or locally advanced stage III cutaneous melanoma, expression of HLA*A0201, an absence of brain metastases, and suitability for high-dose interleukin-2 therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive interleukin-2 alone (720,000 IU per kilogram of body weight per dose) or gp100:209-217(210M) plus incomplete Freund's adjuvant (Montanide ISA-51) once per cycle, followed by interleukin-2. The primary end point was clinical response. Secondary end points included toxic effects and progression-free survival. RESULTS: The treatment groups were well balanced with respect to baseline characteristics and received a similar amount of interleukin-2 per cycle. The toxic effects were consistent with those expected with interleukin-2 therapy. The vaccine-interleukin-2 group, as compared with the interleukin-2-only group, had a significant improvement in centrally verified overall clinical response (16% vs. 6%, P = 0.03), as well as longer progression-free survival (2.2 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 3.9 vs. 1.6 months; 95% CI, 1.5 to 1.8; P = 0.008). The median overall survival was also longer in the vaccine-interleukin-2 group than in the interleukin-2-only group (17.8 months; 95% CI, 11.9 to 25.8 vs. 11.1 months; 95% CI, 8.7 to 16.3; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced melanoma, the response rate was higher and progression-free survival longer with vaccine and interleukin-2 than with interleukin-2 alone. Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Laurie S.A.,University of Ottawa | Goss G.D.,University of Ottawa | Shepherd F.A.,University of Toronto | Reaume M.N.,University of Ottawa | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Lung Cancer | Year: 2014

Background The src family of kinases may play a role in the malignant phenotype through effects on migration, motility, adhesion and proliferation. The activity of saracatinib, an orally available inhibitor of src kinases, was evaluated in patients with advanced, platinum-pretreated NSCLC. Patients and Methods Eligible patients with advanced NSCLC of any histologic subtype and who had obtained a best response to prior platinum-based chemotherapy of at least stable disease received saracatanib 175 mg orally daily in a 28 day cycle. The primary end point was the proportion of patients progression-free after 4 cycles (16 weeks) of therapy; 8 such patients of 32 evaluable were required to deem the therapy active. Immunohistochemistry for src expression was performed on archival tissue from enrolled patients. Results Thirty-seven patients received a median of 2 cycles (range, 1-14) each. Six of 31 evaluable patients were progression-free at 16 weeks. Two partial responses were observed, lasting 3.7 and 14.6 months; 1 responder had an EGFR exon 19 deletion. An additional 4 patients had stable disease for at least 4 cycles. The median progression-free and overall survival times were 1.8 and 7.6 months. No correlation between src protein expression and outcome was observed. Conclusions There may be a subset of saracatinib-responsive NSCLC that is currently molecularly undefined. Further studies of this agent in a population preselected for target mutations that potentially relevant to src pathways, such as EGFR, should be considered. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Sarkaria J.N.,Mayo Medical School | Galanis E.,Mayo Medical School | Wu W.,Mayo Medical School | Dietz A.B.,Mayo Medical School | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions within the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway as a critical modulator of cell survival. Methods: The mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus (CCI-779) was combined with chemoradiotherapy in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients in a dose-escalation phase I trial. The first 12 patients were treated with CCI-779 combined with radiation/temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide. A second cohort of 13 patients was treated with concurrent CCI-779/radiation/temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide monotherapy. Results: Concomitant and adjuvant CCI-779 was associated with a high rate (3 of 12 patients) of grade 4/5 infections. By limiting CCI-779 treatment to the radiation/temozolomide phase and using antibiotic prophylaxis, the rate of infections was reduced, although 2 of 13 patients developed exacerbation of pre-existing fungal or viral infections. Dose-limiting toxicities were observed in 2 of 13 patients with this modified schedule. Weekly CCI-779 (50 mg/week) combined with radiation/temozolomide is the recommended phase II dose and schedule. The immune profile of patients in the second cohort was assessed before, during, and after CCI-779 therapy. There was robust suppression of helper and cytotoxic T cells, B cells, natural killer, cells and elevation of regulatory T cells during CCI-779/radiation/temozolomide therapy with recovery to baseline levels during adjuvant temozolomide of cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and regulatory T cells. Conclusions: The increased infection rate observed with CCI-779 combined with chemoradiotherapy in GBM was reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis and by limiting the duration of CCI-779 therapy. The combined suppressive effects of CCI-779 and temozolomide therapy on discrete immune compartments likely contributed to the increased infectious risks observed. ©2010 AACR. Source

Wang L.-Z.,National University of Singapore | Ramirez J.,University of Chicago | Yeo W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chan M.-Y.M.,National University of Singapore | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Belinostat is a hydroxamate class HDAC inhibitor that has demonstrated activity in peripheral T-cell lymphoma and is undergoing clinical trials for non-hematologic malignancies. We studied the pharmacokinetics of belinostat in hepatocellular carcinoma patients to determine the main pathway of metabolism of belinostat. The pharmacokinetics of belinostat in liver cancer patients were characterized by rapid plasma clearance of belinostat with extensive metabolism with more than 4-fold greater relative systemic exposure of major metabolite, belinostat glucuronide than that of belinostat. There was significant interindividual variability of belinostat glucuronidation. The major pathway of metabolism involves UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation and a good correlation has been identified between belinostat glucuronide formation and glucuronidation of known UGT1A1 substrates. In addition, liver microsomes harboring UGT1A1*28 alleles have lower glucuronidation activity for belinostat compared to those with wildtype UGT1A1. The main metabolic pathway of belinostat is through glucuronidation mediated primarily by UGT1A1, a highly polymorphic enzyme. The clinical significance of this finding remains to be determined. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00321594 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00321594. © 2013 Wang et al. Source

Lu C.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Lee J.J.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Komaki R.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Herbst R.S.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2010

Background AE-941 is a standardized aqueous shark cartilage extract with antiangiogenic properties that has previously been evaluated in phase I and II clinical trials. Our objective was to determine the effect of adding AE-941 to chemoradiotherapy on overall survival of patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical trial was designed to test the efficacy of AE-941 in unresectable stage III NSCLC patients who were treated with chemoradiotherapy. Between June 5, 2000, and February 6, 2006, 379 eligible patients were enrolled in community and academic oncology centers across the United States and Canada. In February 2006, the trial was closed to new patient entry before meeting the target sample size because of insufficient accrual. All subjects received induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy with chest radiotherapy. Each participating center administered one of the two chemotherapy regimens, either carboplatin and paclitaxel, or cisplatin and vinorelbine. The primary endpoint was overall survival, and secondary endpoints were time to progression, progression-free survival, tumor response rate, and toxic effects. Event-time distributions were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival between the chemoradiotherapy plus AE-941 group (n = 188; median survival = 14.4 months, 95% confidence interval = 12.6 to 17.9 months) and the chemoradiotherapy plus placebo group (n = 191; median survival = 15.6 months, 95% confidence interval = 13.8 to 18.1 months) (P =. 73). Time to progression, progression-free survival, and tumor response rates were not statistically significantly different between the AE-941 and the placebo groups. No differences between the two groups were observed in common grade 3 or higher toxic effects attributable to chemoradiotherapy. Conclusions The addition of AE-941 to chemoradiotherapy did not improve overall survival in patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC. This study does not support the use of shark cartilage-derived products as therapy for lung cancer. © 2010 The Author. Source

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