Cancer Research UK Drug Development Office

London, United Kingdom

Cancer Research UK Drug Development Office

London, United Kingdom
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Elliott M.A.,University of Strathclyde | Ford S.J.,University of Strathclyde | Prasad E.,University of Strathclyde | Dick L.J.,University of Strathclyde | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2012

The novel organoarsenical GSAO, 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid, has potential anti-angiogenic capability with application in cancer where tumour metastasis relies on neo-vascularisation. As GSAO arsenic is trivalent, the arsenoxide moiety reacts with appropriately spaced cysteine residues on adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) mitochondrial membrane protein. Molecular oxidation of the arsenic to the pentavalent structure, as in the degradant GSAA (4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonic acid), prevents sulphydryl interaction and risks abolition of activity. We report here on formulation studies aiming to produce a parenteral product with the primary objective of restricting GSAA transformation from GSAO to protect maximal potency of the molecule. Successful anti-oxidant strategy primarily came from pH control. The presence of glycine was proposed to form a stabilising five-membered oxazarsolidinone ring with arsenoxide and this was investigated using potentiometric assays. We report on these tritration studies identifying a pK a of 8.2 associated with an As-OH, but not confirming ring presence. An original clinical trial pharmaceutical was successfully realised by lyophilisation of 50 mg/mL GSAO in 100 mM glycine solution, pH 7 to obtain a 48-month shelf life for the freeze-dried vials. The Phase I clinical study is ongoing in patients with solid tumours refractory to standard therapy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Taylor G.S.,University of Birmingham | Jia H.,University of Birmingham | Harrington K.,Royal Marsden Hospital | Lee L.W.,Christie NHS Foundation Trust | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of doses. Experimental Design: Sixteen patients in the United Kingdom (UK) with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) received three intradermal vaccinations of MVA-EL at 3-weekly intervals at dose levels between 5 × 107 and 5 × 108 plaque-forming units (pfu). Blood samples were taken at screening, after each vaccine cycle, and during the post-vaccination period. T-cell responses were measured using IFNγ ELISpot assays with overlapping EBNA1/LMP2 peptide mixes or HLA-matched epitope peptides. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to characterize functionally responsive T-cell populations. Results: Vaccination was generally well tolerated. Immunity increased after vaccination to at least one antigen in 8 of 14 patients (7/14, EBNA1; 6/14, LMP2), including recognition of epitopes that vary between EBV strains associated with different ethnic groups. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed that vaccination induced differentiation and functional diversification of responsive T-cell populations specific for EBNA1 and LMP2 within the CD4 and CD8 compartments, respectively. Conclusions: MVA-EL is safe and immunogenic across diverse ethnicities and thus suitable for use in trials against different EBV-positive cancers globally as well as in South-East Asia where NPC is most common. The highest dose (5 × 108 pfu) is recommended for investigation in current phase IB and II trials. ©2014 AACR.


Guest R.D.,Cellular Therapeutics | Kirillova N.,Cellular Therapeutics | Mowbray S.,Cellular Therapeutics | Gornall H.,University of Manchester | And 12 more authors.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2014

Adoptive cell therapy employing gene-modified T-cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising preclinical activity in a range of model systems and is now being tested in the clinical setting. The manufacture of CAR T-cells requires compliance with national and European regulations for the production of medicinal products. We established such a compliant process to produce T-cells armed with a first-generation CAR specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). CAR T-cells were successfully generated for 14 patients with advanced CEA+ malignancy. Of note, in the majority of patients, the defined procedure generated predominantly CD4+ CAR T-cells with the general T-cell population bearing an effector-memory phenotype and high in vitro effector function. Thus, improving the process to generate less-differentiated T-cells would be more desirable in the future for effective adoptive gene-modified T-cell therapy. However, these results confirm that CAR T-cells can be generated in a manner compliant with regulations governing medicinal products in the European Union. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Hui E.P.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Taylor G.S.,University of Birmingham | Jia H.,University of Birmingham | Ma B.B.Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a high incidence tumor in Chinese populations, in which tumor cells express the two EBV antigens EB nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2). Here, we report the phase I trial of a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, which encodes an EBNA1/LMP2 fusion protein designed to boost T-cell immunity to these antigens. The vaccine was delivered to Hong Kong patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma to determine a safe and immunogenic dose. The patients, all in remission more than 12 weeks after primary therapy, received three intradermal MVA-EL vaccinations at three weekly intervals, using five escalating dose levels between 5 × 107 and 5 × 108 plaque-forming unit (pfu). Blood samples were taken during prescreening, immediately before vaccination, one week afterward and at intervals up to one year later. Immunogenicity was tested by IFN-γ ELIspot assays using complete EBNA1 and LMP2 15-mer peptide mixes and known epitope peptides relevant to patient MHC type. Eighteen patients were treated, three per dose level one to four and six at the highest dose, without dose-limiting toxicity. T-cell responses to one or both vaccine antigens were increased in 15 of 18 patients and, in many cases, were mapped to known CD4 and CD8 epitopes in EBNA1 and/or LMP2. The range of these responses suggested a direct relationship with vaccine dose, with all six patients at the highest dose level giving strong EBNA1/LMP2 responses. We concluded that MVA-EL is both safe and immunogenic, allowing the highest dose to be forwarded to phase II studies examining clinical benefit. © 2012 American Association for Cancer Research.


PubMed | Cancer Research UK Drug Development Office, The Institute of Cancer Research The Royal Marsden Hospital, Public Health England, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust and 3 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase I | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of doses.Sixteen patients in the United Kingdom (UK) with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) received three intradermal vaccinations of MVA-EL at 3-weekly intervals at dose levels between 5 10(7) and 5 10(8) plaque-forming units (pfu). Blood samples were taken at screening, after each vaccine cycle, and during the post-vaccination period. T-cell responses were measured using IFN ELISpot assays with overlapping EBNA1/LMP2 peptide mixes or HLA-matched epitope peptides. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to characterize functionally responsive T-cell populations.Vaccination was generally well tolerated. Immunity increased after vaccination to at least one antigen in 8 of 14 patients (7/14, EBNA1; 6/14, LMP2), including recognition of epitopes that vary between EBV strains associated with different ethnic groups. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed that vaccination induced differentiation and functional diversification of responsive T-cell populations specific for EBNA1 and LMP2 within the CD4 and CD8 compartments, respectively.MVA-EL is safe and immunogenic across diverse ethnicities and thus suitable for use in trials against different EBV-positive cancers globally as well as in South-East Asia where NPC is most common. The highest dose (5 10(8) pfu) is recommended for investigation in current phase IB and II trials.


Watson A.J.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | Sabharwal A.,Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals | Thorncroft M.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | McGown G.,Paterson Institute for Cancer Research | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Purpose: A major mechanism of resistance to chlorethylnitrosureas and methylating agents involves the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We sought to determine the dose of oral 6-(4-bromo-2-thienyl) methoxy purin-2-amine (lomeguatrib), a pseudosubstrate inactivator of MGMT, required to render active protein undetectable 12 hours after dosing in prostate, primary central nervous system (CNS), and colorectal cancer patients. Experimental Design: Lomeguatrib was administered orally as a single dose (20-160 mg) ∼12 hours before tumor resection. Dose escalation was projected to continue until grade 2 toxicity or until complete inactivation of tumor MGMT was encountered. Total MGMT protein levels were quantified by ELISA, and active protein levels were quantified by biochemical assay. MGMT promoter methylation was determined in glioblastoma DNA by methylation-specific PCR. Results: Thirty-seven patients were dosed with lomeguatrib, and 32 informative tumor samples were obtained. Mean total MGMT level varied between tumor types: 554 ± 404 fmol/mg protein (±SD) for prostate cancer, 87.4 ± 40.3 fmol/mg protein for CNS tumors, and 244 ± 181 fmol/mg protein for colorectal cancer. MGMT promoter hypermethylation did not correlate with total protein expression. Consistent total MGMT inactivation required 120 mg of lomeguatrib in prostate and colorectal cancers. Complete consistent inactivation in CNS tumors was observed only at the highest dose of lomeguatrib (160 mg). Conclusions: Total MGMT inactivation can be achieved in prostate, primary CNS, and colorectal cancers with a single administration of 120 or 160 mg lomeguatrib. The dose needed did not correlate with mean total MGMT protein concentrations. One hundred twenty to 160 mg/d of lomeguatrib should be administered to achieve total MGMT inactivation in future studies. ©2010 AACR.

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