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Morgan R.G.,Cancer Research UK Colorectal Tumour Biology Group | Jones R.F.,Cancer Research UK Colorectal Tumour Biology Group | Collard T.J.,Cancer Research UK Colorectal Tumour Biology Group | Lane J.D.,University of Bristol | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Background:LGR5 is an important marker of intestinal stem cells and performs its vital functions at the cell membrane. Despite the importance of LGR5 to both normal and cancer stem cell biology, it is not known how microenvironmental stress affects the expression and subcellular distribution of the protein.Methods:Nutrient stress was induced through glucose starvation. Glycosylation status was assessed using endoglycosidase or tunicamycin treatment. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to assess subcellular distribution of LGR5.Results:Glucose deprivation altered the glycosylation status of LGR5 resulting in reduced protein stability and cell surface expression. Furthermore, inhibiting LGR5 glycosylation resulted in depleted surface expression and reduced localisation in the cis-Golgi network.Conclusions:Nutrient stress within a tumour microenvironment has the capacity to alter LGR5 protein stability and membrane localisation through modulation of LGR5 glycosylation status. As LGR5 surface localisation is required for enhanced Wnt signalling, this is the first report to show a mechanism by which the microenvironment could affect LGR5 function. © 2015 Cancer Research UK.

Al-Kharusi M.R.A.,Cancer Research UK Colorectal Tumour Biology Group | Smartt H.J.M.,Cancer Research UK Colorectal Tumour Biology Group | Greenhough A.,Cancer Research UK Colorectal Tumour Biology Group | Collard T.J.,Cancer Research UK Colorectal Tumour Biology Group | And 3 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2013

Cyclooxygenase-2 is overexpressed in the majority of colorectal tumours leading to elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), promoting many hallmarks of cancer. Importantly, PGE2 is reported to enhance Wnt/β-catenin signalling in colorectal carcinoma cells and in normal haematopoietic stem cells where it promotes stem cell function. Although Wnt signalling plays a crucial role in intestinal stem cells, the relationship between PGE2 and intestinal stem cells is unclear. Given that the key intestinal cancer stem cell marker LGR5 (leucine-rich G-protein coupled receptor 5) is a Wnt target and PGE2 enhances Wnt signalling, the focus of this study was to investigate whether PGE2 regulated LGR5 expression in colorectal adenoma cells and whether LGR5 was important for tumour cell survival. PGE2 upregulated LGR5 protein in adenoma (RG/C2) and carcinoma (DLD-1) cell lines. LGR5 knockdown induced cell death in RG/C2 and AA/C1 adenoma cells, suggesting that LGR5 has an important survivalpromoting role in adenoma cells. Indeed, we detected LGR5 protein expression in 4 of 4 human adenoma cell lines. Furthermore, LGR5 small interfering RNA inhibited the survival-promoting effects of PGE2 in RG/C2, suggesting that PGE2 promotes adenoma cell survival, at least in part, by increasing LGR5 expression. These studies, therefore, show the first link between PGE2 and LGR5 in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells and demonstrate a survival-promoting role of LGR5. As non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause adenomas to regress in FAP patients, these studies could have important implications for the mechanism by which NSAIDs are chemopreventive, as lowering PGE2 levels could reduce LGR5 expression and survival of LGR5+ adenoma stem cells. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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