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Khan Z.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Khan Z.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Khan Z.,Jiwaji University | Bisen P.S.,Jiwaji University | And 2 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2013

Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth. The development of cancer takes place in a multi-step process during which cells acquire a series of mutations that eventually lead to unrestrained cell growth and division, inhibition of cell differentiation, and evasion of cell death. Dysregulation of oncoapoptotic genes, growth factors, receptors and their downstream signaling pathway components represent a central driving force in tumor development. The detailed studies of signal transduction pathways for mechanisms of cell growth and apoptosis have significantly advanced our understanding of human cancers, subsequently leading to more effective treatments. Oral squamous cell carcinoma represents a classic example of multi-stage carcinogenesis. It gradually evolves through transitional precursor lesions from normal epithelium to a full-blown metastatic phenotype. Genetic alterations in many genes encoding crucial proteins, which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis, have been implicated in oral cancer. As like other solid tumors, in oral cancer these genes include the ones coding for cell cycle regulators or oncoproteins (e.g. Ras, Myc, cyclins, CDKs, and CKIs), tumor suppressors (e.g. p53 and pRb), pro-survival proteins (e.g. telomerase, growth factors or their receptors), anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bcl2 family, IAPs, and NF-kB), pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax and BH-3 family, Fas, TNF-R, and caspases), and the genes encoding key transcription factors or elements for signal transduction leading to cell growth and apoptosis. Here we discuss the current knowledge of oncoapoptotic regulation in human cancers with special reference to oral cancers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Khan A.A.,Cancer Hospital and Research Institute | Shrivastava A.,King Saud University
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2010

Bacteria are capable of exchanging DNA between each other and even from other organisms including human, but what will be the fate of such exchange? Enigmatic association between bacterial infections and cancer is also demonstrated recently with unknown exact cause and effect mechanism. This enigma may be resolved not in all but in few cases with the view of horizontal DNA transfer. The present article tries to examine this association in the frame of new idea. This article concludes that knowledge of this association may aid in management of cancer in clinical settings. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source

Tripathi R.M.,Amity University | Gupta R.K.,Amity University | Bhadwal A.S.,Amity University | Kumar N.,Amity University | And 2 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2014

The present study demonstrates a simple, cost effective and selective method for colorimetric detection of mercury(II) ions using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesized by non-pathogenic and agriculturally considerable fungal biomass of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The as-synthesized AuNPs were used further for the selective optical detection of Hg2+ ions. The color of AuNPs solution changes in the presence of Hg2+ ions and also a substantial change in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of nanoparticles was observed even at minute concentration of Hg2+ ions. The sensitivity and selectivity of AuNPs towards Hg2+ ions was also analyzed in the presence of Pb 2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe3+, Ni 2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+, Co 2+ and Na+ ions. The mechanism of colorimetric detection of Hg2+ ions was also discussed along with diagrammatic representation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Tripathi R.M.,Amity University | Shrivastav A.,P.A. College | Shrivastav B.R.,Cancer Hospital and Research Institute
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Gold nanoparticles have tremendous application in the area of nanotechnology that raises new possibility in the treatment of brain tumor. These nanoparticles can be used for selectively gaining access to tumor due to their small size and modifiability. Gold nanoparticles are functionalized with various molecules such as anticancer drug, transferrin and monoclonal antibody to produce nanocarriers. These nanocarriers have ability to deliver the drug at targeted site. Transferrin crosses the bloodbrain barrier because of the receptor-mediated endocytosis. The monoclonal antibody facilitates the release of anticancer drug at targeted sites. This approach of delivery saves the normal cells surrounding the tumor. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Shrivastava A.,Cancer Hospital and Research Institute | Khan A.A.,Cancer Hospital and Research Institute | Khan A.A.,King Saud University | Khurshid M.,King Saud University | And 4 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology | Year: 2016

l-Asparaginase (EC3.5.1.1) is an enzyme, which is used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and other related blood cancers from a long time. This enzyme selectively hydrolyzes the extracellular amino acid l-asparagine into l-aspartate and ammonia, leading to nutritional deficiencies, protein synthesis inhibition, and ultimately death of lymphoblastic cells by apoptosis. Currently, bacterial asparaginases are used for treatment purpose but offers scepticism due to a number of toxicities, including thrombosis, pancreatitis, hyperglycemia, and hepatotoxicity. Resistance towards bacterial asparaginase is another major disadvantage during cancer management. This situation attracted attention of researchers towards alternative sources of l-asparaginase, including plants and fungi. Present article discusses about potential of l-asparaginase as an anticancer agent, its mechanism of action, and adverse effects related to current asparaginase formulations. This article also provides an outlook for recent developments in l-asparaginase discovery from alternative sources and their potential as a less toxic alternative to current formulations. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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