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Har L.W.,University Putra Malaysia | Shaari K.,University Putra Malaysia | Boon L.H.,Cancer Research Initiative Foundation CARIF | Kamarulzaman F.A.,Cancer Research Initiative Foundation CARIF | Ismail I.S.,University Putra Malaysia
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2012

Two new phloroglucinol derivatives, identified as anthuminoate (1) and anthuminone (2), were isolated from the ichthyotoxic ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium polyanthum leaves. In addition, bioassay-guided fractionation followed by dereplication of the photocytotoxic fraction of this plant part has resulted in the identification of five known pheophorbides as the bioactive constituents. The compounds were identified as pheophorbide-a, methyl pheophorbide-a, methyl hydroxypheophorbide-a, pheophorbide-b and hydroxypheophorbide-b. Inhibition of cell viability shown by the compounds ranged from 83.3 to 86.1% at a test concentration of 5 μg/mL. This shows that Syzygium polyanthum leaves are a potential new source in the studies of photocytotoxicity for photodynamic therapy. Source

Mohamad S.,National University of Malaysia | Isa N.M.,National University of Malaysia | Muhammad R.,National University of Malaysia | Emran N.A.,Hospital Kuala Lumpur | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

CHEK2 is a protein kinase that is involved in cell-cycle checkpoint control after DNA damage. Germline mutations in CHEK2 gene have been associated with increase in breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to identify the CHEK2 gene germline mutations among high-risk breast cancer patients and its contribution to the multiethnic population in Malaysia. We screened the entire coding region of CHEK2 gene on 59 high-risk breast cancer patients who tested negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations from UKM Medical Centre (UKMMC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) and Hospital Putrajaya (HPJ). Sequence variants identified were screened further in case-control cohorts consisting of 878 unselected invasive breast cancer patients (180 Malays, 526 Chinese and 172 Indian) and 270 healthy individuals (90 Malays, 90 Chinese and 90 Indian). By screening the entire coding region of the CHEK2 gene, two missense mutations, c.480A>G (p.I160M) and c.538C>T (p.R180C) were identified in two unrelated patients (3.4%). Further screening of these missense mutations on the case-control cohorts unveiled the variant p.I160M in 2/172 (1.1%) Indian cases and 1/90 (1.1%) Indian control, variant p.R180C in 2/526 (0.38%) Chinese cases and 0/90 Chinese control, and in 2/180 (1.1%) of Malay cases and 1/90 (1.1%) of Malay control. The results of this study suggest that CHEK2 mutations are rare among high-risk breast cancer patients and may play a minor contributing role in breast carcinogenesis among Malaysian population. © 2015 Mohamad et al. Source

Kue C.S.,University of Malaya | Kue C.S.,Cancer Research Initiative Foundation CARIF | Tan K.Y.,Cancer Research Initiative Foundation CARIF | Tan K.Y.,University of Malaya | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Animals | Year: 2015

The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a preclinical model widely used for vascular and anti-vascular effects of therapeutic agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the suitability of CAM as a predictive model for acute toxicology studies of drugs by comparing it to conventional mouse and rat models for 10 FDA-approved anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, carmustine, camptothecin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cisplatin, aloin, mitomycin C, actinomycin-D, melphalan). Suitable formulations for intravenous administration were determined before the average of median lethal dose (LD50) and median survival dose (SD50) in the CAM were measured and calculated for these drugs. The resultant ideal LD50values were correlated to those reported in the literature using Pearson’s correlation test for both intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection in rodents. Our results showed moderate correlations (r2=0.42 − 0.68, P<0.005–0.05) between the ideal LD50 values obtained using the CAM model with LD50 values from mice and rats models for both intravenous and intraperitoneal administrations, suggesting that the chick embryo may be a suitable alternative model for acute drug toxicity screening before embarking on full toxicological investigations in rodents in development of anticancer drugs. © 2015 Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Source

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