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Raza S.M.,Johns Hopkins Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | Recinos P.F.,Johns Hopkins Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | Avendano J.,Johns Hopkins Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | Adams H.,Johns Hopkins Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery | Year: 2011

Background: The surgical management of deep intra-axial lesions still requires microsurgical approaches that utilize retraction of deep white matter to obtain adequate visualization. We report our experience with a new tubular retractor system, designed specifically for intracranial applications, linked with frameless neuronavigation for a cohort of intraventricular and deep intra-axial tumors. Methods: The ViewSite Brain Access System (Vycor, Inc) was used in a series of 9 adult and pediatric patients with a variety of pathologies. Histological diagnoses either resected or biopsied with the system included: colloid cyst, DNET, papillary pineal tumor, anaplastic astrocytoma, toxoplasmosis and lymphoma. The locations of the lesions approached include: lateral ventricle, basal ganglia, pulvinar/posterior thalamus and insular cortex. Post-operative imaging was assessed to determine extent of resection and extent of white matter damage along the surgical trajectory (based on TFLAIR and diffusion restriction/ADC signal). Results: Satisfactory resection or biopsy was obtained in all patients. Radiographic analysis demonstrated evidence of white matter damage along the surgical trajectory in one patient. None of the patients experienced neurological deficits as a result of white matter retraction/manipulation. Conclusion: Based on a retrospective review of our experience, we feel that this accesss system, when used in conjunction with frameless neuronavigational systems, provides adequate visualization for tumor resection while permitting the use of standard microsurgical techniques through minimally invasive craniotomies. Our initial data indicate that this system may minimize white matter injury, but further studies are necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

Adding temozolomide (TMZ) to radiation for patients with newly-diagnosed anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) is common clinical practice despite the lack of prospective studies demonstrating a survival advantage. Two retrospective studies, each with methodologic limitations, provide conflicting advice regarding treatment. This single-institution retrospective study was conducted to determine survival trends in patients with AA. All patients ≥18 years with newly-diagnosed AA treated at Johns Hopkins from 1995 to 2012 were included. As we incorporated TMZ into high-grade glioma treatment regimens in 2004, patients were divided into pre-2004 and post-2004 groups for analysis. Clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data were collected. Median overall survival (OS) was calculated using Kaplan–Meier estimates. A total of 196 patients were identified; 74 pre-2004 and 122 post-2004; mean age 47 ± 15 years; 57 % male; 87 % white, 69 % surgical debulking. Mean RT dose 5676 + 746 cGy; duration of concurrent chemoradiation 5.8 ± 0.8 weeks; and mean adjuvant chemotherapy 4.3 + 2.8 cycles. Baseline prognostic factors did not differ between groups. Chemotherapy was administered to 12 % of patients pre-2004 (TMZ = 1, procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine = 2, carmustine wafer = 6) and 94 % post-2004 (TMZ in all, p < 0.001). Median OS was 32 months (95 % CI 23–43). Survival was longer in the post-2004 cohort (37 mo, 24–64) than pre-2004 (27 mo, 19–40; HR 0.75, 0.53–1.06, p = 0.11). Multivariate analysis controlling for age, Karnofsky performance status, and extent of resection revealed a 36 % reduced risk of death (HR 0.64, 0.44–0.91, p = 0.015) in patients treated post-2004. This retrospective review found survival in newly diagnosed patients with AA improved with the addition of temozolomide to standard radiation. Until prospective randomized phase III data are available, these data support the practice of incorporating TMZ in the management of newly-diagnosed AA. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Strowd R.E.,III | Strowd R.E.,Cancer Research Building II | Grossman S.A.,Johns Hopkins
Current Treatment Options in Oncology | Year: 2015

Central nervous system gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor, and these are most often high-grade gliomas. Standard therapy includes a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy which provides a modest increase in survival, but virtually, no patients are cured, the overall prognosis remains poor, and new therapies are desperately needed. Tumor metabolism is a well-recognized but understudied therapeutic approach to treating cancers. Dietary and nondietary modulation of glucose homeostasis and the incorporation of dietary supplements and other natural substances are potentially important interventions to affect cancer cell growth, palliate symptoms, reduce treatment-associated side effects, and improve the quality and quantity of life in patients with cancer. These approaches are highly desired by patients. However, they can be financially burdensome, associated with toxicities, and have, on occasion, reduced the efficacy of proven therapies and negatively impacted patient outcomes. The lack of rigorous scientific data evaluating almost all diet and supplement-based therapies currently limits their incorporation into standard oncologic practice. Rigorous studies are needed to document and improve these potentially useful approaches in patients with brain and other malignancies. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Grossman R.,Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | Mukherjee D.,Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | Chaichana K.L.,Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | Salvatori R.,Johns Hopkins University | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Background Preoperative determinants of surgical risk in elderly patients with pituitary tumour are not fully defined. The aim of this study was to quantify operative risk for these patients. Design and methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998-2005), a database containing discharge information from a stratified, random sample of 20% of all non-federal hospitals in 37 states. Patients >65 years old who underwent pituitary tumour resection were identified by ICD-9 coding. Primary outcome was inpatient death. Other outcomes included post-operative complications, length of stay (LOS) and total charges. Results A total of 8400 patients (53·7% male) were identified. Mean age was 72·2. Mean co-morbidity score was 5·3. A majority were white (82·0%) admitted to academic hospitals (69·5%) for elective procedures (55·7%). Inpatient mortality was 3·8%. The most common complication was fluid and electrolyte abnormalities (14·3%). Mean LOS was 8·5 days. In multivariate analysis, patients >80 years old had 30% greater odds of death, relative to 65-69 year old counterparts. Each complication increased LOS by an average of at least 4 days. These associations were statistically significant (P-values <0·05). Conclusions New clinically relevant risk stratification information is now available to assist clinicians in operative decision-making for elderly patients with pituitary tumour considering operative intervention. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Raza S.M.,Johns Hopkins Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | Conway J.E.,Johns Hopkins Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | Li K.W.,Johns Hopkins Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | Attenello F.,Johns Hopkins Neuro Oncology Surgical Outcomes Research Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Neurosurgical Review | Year: 2010

The frontal-nasal-orbital craniotomy has been utilized for craniofacial abnormalities and resection of tumors involving the anterior skull base. We describe modifications of this technique to approach extra-axial and intradural midline lesions of the anterior fossa with or without involvement of the skull base. A craniotomy was planned with an endoscope and image guidance. A modified frontal-nasal-orbital craniotomy encompassing the entire frontal sinus complex was performed in conjunction with osteotomies incorporating the bilateral superior orbital ridges and nasal septum. Removal of the posterior wall of the frontal sinus was completed if necessary. Dural repair and final reconstruction are detailed. Our initial experience using this approach in five patients harboring lesions of the anterior skull base resulted in adequate exposure of the targeted pathology. There were no complications of the procedure. Cosmetic results were acceptable. We present a detailed account of this procedure via photographs and a video. The frontal-nasal-orbital craniotomy provides access to the floor of the anterior fossa while avoiding excessive brain retraction associated with facial incisions. In addition, this approach is associated with a lower incidence of complications, such as CSF leak, brain retraction edema, or infection. The frontal-nasal-orbital craniotomy is a useful technique for midline lesions of the anterior skull base, and it should be in the armamentarium of neurological surgeons. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

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