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Asdahl P.H.,Danish Cancer Society | Winther J.F.,Danish Cancer Society | Bonnesen T.G.,Danish Cancer Society | De Fine Licht S.,Danish Cancer Society | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Survival after childhood cancer diagnosis has remarkably improved, but emerging evidence suggests that cancer-directed therapy may have adverse gastrointestinal late effects. We aimed to comprehensively assess the frequency of gastrointestinal and liver late effects among childhood cancer survivors and compare this frequency with the general population. Our population-based cohort study included all 1-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden diagnosed from the 1940s and 1950s. Our outcomes of interest were hospitalization rates for gastrointestinal and liver diseases, which were ascertained from national patient registries. We calculated standardized hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) and absolute excess rates comparing hospitalizations of any gastrointestinal or liver disease and for specific disease entities between survivors and the general population. The study included 31,132 survivors and 207,041 comparison subjects. The median follow-up in the hospital registries were 10 years (range: 0-42) with 23% of the survivors being followed at least to the age of 40 years. Overall, survivors had a 60% relative excess of gastrointestinal or liver diseases [RR: 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-1.7], which corresponds to an absolute excess of 360 (95% CI: 330-390) hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years. Survivors of hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and leukemia had the highest excess of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. In addition, we observed a relative excess of several specific diseases such as esophageal stricture (RR: 13; 95% CI: 9.2-20) and liver cirrhosis (RR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.0-4.1). Our findings provide useful information about the breadth and magnitude of late complications among childhood cancer survivors and can be used for generating hypotheses about potential exposures related to these gastrointestinal and liver late effects. © 2016 UICC.

Conway D.I.,A-Life Medical | Brenner D.R.,International Agency for Research on CancerLyon France | Mcmahon A.D.,A-Life Medical | Macpherson L.M.,A-Life Medical | And 59 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. © 2014 UICC.

Lonnberg S.,Cancer Registry of NorwayOslo Norway | Hansen B.T.,Cancer Registry of NorwayOslo Norway | Haldorsen T.,Cancer Registry of NorwayOslo Norway | Campbell S.,Cancer Registry of NorwayOslo Norway | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Both major morphologic types of cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC), are causally related to persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV), but screening has primarily been effective at preventing SCC. We analysed incidence trends of cervical cancer in Norway stratified by morphologies over 55 years, and projected SCC incidence in the absence of screening by assessing the changes in the incidence rate of AC. The Cancer Registry of Norway was used to identify all 19,530 malignancies in the cervix diagnosed in the period 1956-2010. The majority of these (82.9%) were classified as SCCs, 10.5% as ACs and the remaining 6.6% were of other or undefined morphology. By joint-point analyses of a period of more than five decades, the average annual percentage change in the age-standardised incidence was -1.0 (95%CI: -2.1-0.1) for cervical SCC, 1.5 (95%CI:1.1-1.9) for cervical AC and -0.9 (95%CI: -1.4 to -0.3) for cervical cancers of other or undefined morphology. The projected age-standardised incidence rate of cervical SCC in Norway, assuming no screening, was 28.6 per 100,000 woman-years in 2010, which compared with the observed SCC rate of 7.3 corresponds to an estimated 74% reduction in SCC or a 68% reduction due to screening in the total cervical cancer burden. Cytology screening has impacted cervical cancer burden more than suggested by the overall observed cervical cancer incidence reduction since its peak in the mid-1970s. The simultaneous substantial increase in cervical adenocarcinoma in Norway is presumably indicative of an increase in exposure to HPV over time. © 2015 UICC.

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