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North Bethesda, MD, United States

Van Domelen D.R.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Koster A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Koster A.,Maastricht University | Caserotti P.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: Physical inactivity is a risk factor for obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and other chronic diseases that are increasingly prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide. Time at work represents a major portion of the day for employed people. Purpose: To determine how employment status (full-time, part-time, or not employed) and job type (active or sedentary) are related to daily physical activity levels in American adults. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were collected in 20032004 and analyzed in 2010. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph uniaxial accelerometers, and participants aged 2060 years with <4 days of monitoring were included (N=1826). Accelerometer variables included mean counts/minute during wear time and proportion of wear time spent in various intensity levels. Results: In men, full-time workers were more active than healthy nonworkers (p=0.004), and in weekday-only analyses, even workers with sedentary jobs were more active (p=0.03) and spent less time sedentary (p<0.001) than nonworkers. In contrast with men, women with full-time sedentary jobs spent more time sedentary (p=0.008) and had less light and lifestyle intensity activity than healthy nonworkers on weekdays. Within full-time workers, those with active jobs had greater weekday activity than those with sedentary jobs (22% greater in men, 30% greater in women). Conclusions: In men, full-time employment, even in sedentary occupations, is positively associated with physical activity compared to not working, and in both genders job type has a major bearing on daily activity levels. © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source

Miller P.E.,Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Miller P.E.,Exponent, Inc. | McKinnon R.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Krebs-Smith S.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been linked with poor diet quality, weight gain, and increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have been hampered by inconsistent definitions and a failure to capture all types of SSBs. Purpose: To comprehensively examine total SSB consumption in the U.S. using an all-encompassing definition that includes beverages calorically sweetened after purchase in addition to presweetened beverages. Methods: Data from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N=17,078) were analyzed in September 2012 and used to estimate calories (kilocalories) of added sugars from SSBs and to identify top sources of SSBs. Results: On average, Americans aged ≥2 years consumed 171 kcal (8% of total kcal) per day from added sugars in SSBs; the top sources were soda, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, energy/sports drinks, and flavored milks. Male adolescents (aged 12-19 years) had the highest mean intakes (293 kcal/day; 12% of total kcal). Conclusions: Americans consume more calories from added sugars in beverages than previously reported. The methodology presented in this paper allows for more-comprehensive estimates than those previously used regarding the extent to which SSBs provide calories from added sugars. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source

Schembre S.M.,Anderson University, South Carolina | Schembre S.M.,University of Southern California | Wen C.K.,University of Southern California | Davis J.N.,University of Texas at Austin | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: Eating breakfast is believed to promote a healthy body weight. Yet, few studies have examined the contribution of energy balance-related behavioral factors to this relation in minority youth. Objective: We assessed the associations between breakfast consumption and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and adiposity before and after accounting for energy intake and PA in minority girls. Design: Cross-sectional data were obtained on body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (measured by BodPod), dietary intake (measured with 3-d dietary records), and PA (measured with 7-d accelerometry) from 87 Latina and African American girls 8-17 y of age (75% Latina, 80% overweight). Dietary records were used to categorize girls as more frequent breakfast eaters (MF; 2 or 3 of 3 d; n = 57) or less frequent breakfast eaters (LF; 0 or 1 of 3 d; n = 30). Chi-square tests, ANCOVA, and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Mediation was assessed with a Sobel test. Results: Compared with the MF group, the LF group spent 30% less time (12.6 min/d) in moderate-to-vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA; P = 0.004) and had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0.029). MVPA accounted for 25% (95% CI: 28.8%, 58.1%; P = 0.139) of the relation between breakfast consumption and percentage body fat. We were unable to show that energy intake or MVPAwas a significant mediator of the relation between breakfast consumption and adiposity in this sample. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that among predominantly overweight minority girls, MVPA, but not energy intake, was associated with both breakfast consumption and adiposity; however, a lack of power reduced our ability to detect a significant mediation effect. Other unobserved variables likely contribute to this relation. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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