Cancer Prevention and Control Program

Anderson, United States

Cancer Prevention and Control Program

Anderson, United States
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Bellacosa A.,Epigenetics and Progenitor Cells and Human Genetics Programs | Bellacosa A.,Instituto Regina Elena | Godwin A.K.,Ovarian Cancer Program | Caretti E.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | And 10 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research | Year: 2010

We hypothesized that cells bearing a single inherited "hit" in a tumor suppressor gene express an altered mRNA repertoire that may identify targets for measures that could delay or even prevent progression to carcinoma. We report here on the transcriptomes of primary breast and ovarian epithelial cells cultured from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and controls. Our comparison analyses identified multiple changes in gene expression, in both tissues for both mutations, which were validated independently by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Several of the differentially expressed genes had been previously proposed as cancer markers, including mammaglobin in breast cancer and serum amyloid in ovarian cancer. These findings show that heterozygosity for a mutant tumor suppressor gene can alter the expression profiles of phenotypically normal epithelial cells in a genespecific manner; these detectable effects of "one hit" represent early molecular changes in tumorigenesis that may serve as novel biomarkers of cancer risk and as targets for chemoprevention. ©2010 AACR.

PubMed | Boston University, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of Massachusetts Medical School and University of South Carolina
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) | Year: 2016

Research into the role of diet in health faces a number of methodologic challenges in the choice of study design, measurement methods, and analytic options. Heavier reliance on randomized controlled trial (RCT) designs is suggested as a way to solve these challenges. We present and discuss 7 inherent and practical considerations with special relevance to RCTs designed to study diet: 1) the need for narrow focus; 2) the choice of subjects and exposures; 3) blinding of the intervention; 4) perceived asymmetry of treatment in relation to need; 5) temporal relations between dietary exposures and putative outcomes; 6) strict adherence to the intervention protocol, despite potential clinical counter-indications; and 7) the need to maintain methodologic rigor, including measuring diet carefully and frequently. Alternatives, including observational studies and adaptive intervention designs, are presented and discussed. Given high noise-to-signal ratios interjected by using inaccurate assessment methods in studies with weak or inappropriate study designs (including RCTs), it is conceivable and indeed likely that effects of diet are underestimated. No matter which designs are used, studies will require continued improvement in the assessment of dietary intake. As technology continues to improve, there is potential for enhanced accuracy and reduced user burden of dietary assessments that are applicable to a wide variety of study designs, including RCTs.

PubMed | Bioinformatics and Biomathematics., National Cancer Institute, Georgetown University, Assiut University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Carcinogenesis | Year: 2015

Although it is widely recognized that telomere dysfunction plays an important role in cancer, the relationship between telomere function and bladder cancer risk is not well defined. In a case-control study of bladder cancer in Egypt, we examined relationships between two telomere features and bladder cancer risk. Telomere fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to measure telomere features using short-term cultured blood lymphocytes. Logistic regression was used to estimate the strength of association between telomere features and the risk of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. High telomere length variation (TLV) across all chromosomal ends was significantly associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer [adjusted odds ratios (OR) = 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.48-3.35], as was long average telomere length (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 2.07, 4.91). Further, TLV and average telomere length jointly affected bladder cancer risk: when comparing individuals with long telomere length and high TLV to those with short telomere length and low TLV, the adjusted OR was 14.68 (95% CI: 6.74-31.98). These associations were stronger among individuals who are 60 years of age or younger. In summary, long and heterogeneous telomere length in blood lymphocytes was strongly associated with an increased bladder cancer risk in Egyptian and the association was modulated by age.

Graves K.D.,Cancer Prevention and Control Program | Tercyak K.P.,Georgetown University
Health Psychology | Year: 2015

Given the importance of minority health and health-disparities research in addressing our nation's health-care objectives, Health Psychology encourages manuscripts that reflect a range of themes in this topic. This special section focuses on genomic medicine and continues the journal's effort to highlight behavioral research in disparities. Genomics is a rapidly evolving science and is becoming ubiquitous throughout health care. Researchers and clinicians are increasingly turning their attention to the human genome and its interaction with the environment to understand root causes of many chronic diseases. For all individuals, families, and communities within our society to benefit equitably from such discoveries, genomic research must become an ally in the fight to eliminate health disparities. In this special section, 3 studies concentrate on understanding genomic risk information in racially and ethnically diverse populations, and how that information is communicated and received. These works represent a call to action for health psychologists (and social and behavioral scientists more broadly) to improve our understanding of the role of sociocultural factors in the delivery of genomic medicine through empirical research on affect, cognition, behavior, and patient-provider communication. © 2015 American Psychological Association.

PubMed | Cancer Prevention and Control Program.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2015

Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, immediate reinforcement-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and concerns about health was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative smoking experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation.

PubMed | Cancer Prevention and Control Program.
Type: | Journal: Molecular nutrition & food research | Year: 2016

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is an important biomarker of aging. This study examined whether inflammatory potential of diet, as measured by the Dietary Inflammatory IndexData came from NHANES 1999-2002. LTL and CRP were assayed from leukocyte DNA and serum specimens, respectively. The DII was calculated from food intakes assessed using 24-hour dietary recalls and expressed per 1,000 calories consumed. Associations were examined using survey-based multivariable linear regression for log-transformed LTL.After multivariable adjustment, higher DII scores (i.e., relatively more pro inflammatory) were associated with shorter LTL both when used as continuous (b = -0.003; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.005, -0.0002) and as quartiles (bIn these NHANES data there was an association between DII and LTL. This study also provided a successful construct validation of the DII using CRP in a nationally representative sample. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that diet-associated inflammation determines LTL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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