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Dal Maso L.,Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit | Dal Maso L.,University of Milan | Lise M.,Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit | Lise M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | And 16 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: In Italy, some of the highest incidence rates (IRs) of thyroid cancer (TC) worldwide have been reported. Patients and methods: TC cases <85 years of age reported to Italian cancer registries during 1991-2005 were included. Age-standardized IRs were computed for all TC and age-period-cohort effects were estimated for papillary TC. Results: IRs of TC were twofold higher in 2001-2005 than in 1991-1995 (18 and 8 per 100 000 women, 6 and 3 per 100 000 men, respectively). Increases were similar in the two sexes and nearly exclusively due to papillary TC. Increases of papillary TC by birth cohort were found in both sexes and among all age groups between 20 and 79 years. Age-period-cohort models showed a strong period effect in both sexes (rate ratio for 2001-2009 versus 1991-1995 = 2.5 in women and 2.3 in men), although IRs peaked at an earlier age in women (45-49 years) than men (65-69 years). Conclusion: The strength of the period effect in both sexes and the earlier onset in women than men strongly implicated increased medical surveillance in the upward trends of papillary TC incidence in Italy. The consequences of the current intense search for TC on morbidity and possible overtreatment, especially among young women, should be carefully evaluated. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Lise M.,Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit | Lise M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Franceschi S.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Buzzoni C.,Banca Dati AIRTUM at Cancer Prevention and Research Institute ISPO | And 27 more authors.
Thyroid | Year: 2012

Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has been increasing over the last 30 years in several countries, with some of the worldwide highest TC incidence rates (IRs) reported in Italy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate by histological subtypes the geographical heterogeneity of the incidence of TC in Italy and to analyze recent time trends for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in different cancer registries (CRs). Methods: The study included cases of TC (<85 years of age) reported to 25 Italian CRs between 1991 and 2005. Age-standardized IRs were computed for all histological subtypes of TC according to CRs. Estimated annual percent change and joinpoint regression analysis were used for analysis of PTC. Results: In women, IRs of PTC ranged between 3.5/100,000 in Latina and 8.5/100,000 in Sassari for the period 1991-1995 (a 2.4-fold difference) and between 7.3/100,000 in Alto Adige and 37.5/100,000 in Ferrara for 2001-2005 (a 5.1-fold difference). In men, IRs ranged between 0.7/100,000 in Latina and 3.4/100,000 in Sassari for the period 1991-1995 (a 4.9-fold difference) and between 2.0/100,000 (Alto Adige, Trento) and 10.6/100,000 in Ferrara for 2001-2005 (a 5.3-fold difference). In both sexes, IRs significantly higher than the pooled estimates emerged for the most recent period in the majority of CRs located within the Po River plain and in Latina, but they were lower in the Alpine belt. For women, CRs reported higher IRs than pool estimates showed, between 1991 to 2005, a significantly more marked annual percent change (+12%) than other CRs (+7%). For men the corresponding estimates were +11% and +8%. Conclusions: The distribution of PTC does not lend support to a role of environmental radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl fallout, iodine deficiency, or (volcanic) soils. Between 1991 and 2005, wide geographic variations in the incidence of PTC and heterogeneous upward trends emerged, suggesting that the heterogeneity was a relatively recent phenomenon; this appeared to be mainly explained by variations, at a local level, in medical surveillance. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Amadori D.,Cancer Institute Of Romagna Irst | Silvestrini R.,Cancer Institute Of Romagna Irst | De Lena M.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Boccardo F.,University of Genoa | And 15 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) have proven highly effective in rapidly proliferating breast cancer (RPBC). It has also been seen that sequential administration of doxorubicin and CMF is superior to their alternation, especially in indolent tumors. In a phase III study, we evaluated whether adjuvant epirubicin (E) followed by CMF is superior to the inverse sequence in RPBC. Patients with node-negative or 1-3 node-positive RPBC (Thymidine Labeling Index > 3% or histological grade 3 or S-phase > 10% or Ki67 > 20%) were randomized to receive E (100 mg/m2 i.v. d1, q21 days for 4 cycles) followed by CMF (600, 40, 600 mg/m2 i.v. d1 and 8, q28 days for 4 cycles) (E → CMF) or CMF followed by E (CMF → E) or CMF for 6 cycles. From November 1997 to December 2004, 1066 patients were enrolled: E → CMF 440, CMF → E 438, and CMF 188. At a median follow-up of 69 months, 5-year OS was 91% (95% CI 88-94) for E → CMF and 93% (95% CI 90-95) for CMF → E, with adjusted hazard ratio of 0.88 (95% CI 0.58-1.35), and DFS was 80% in both arms, with adjusted hazard ratio of 0.99 (95% CI 0.73-1.33, Cox model). Adverse events were similar, apart from a higher rate of neutropenia in the CMF → E arm. No important differences in clinical outcome were observed between the two different sequences, making both a valid option in early breast cancer. Further molecular characterization of the tumors might help to identify subgroups achieving higher benefit from either sequence. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Severi S.,Cancer Institute of Romagna IRST | Nanni O.,Cancer Institute of Romagna IRST | Bodei L.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Sansovini M.,Cancer Institute of Romagna IRST | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2013

Purpose The prognostic value of FDG PET for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) has been reported. In this study we evaluated the role of FDG PET in predicting response and progression-free survival (PFS) after 177Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (Lu-PRRT) in patients with advanced well-differentiated grade 1/2 NETs. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 52 patients with progressive advanced NETs overexpressing somatostatin receptors and treated with Lu-PRRT with a cumulative activity up to 27.7 GBq divided into five courses. According to WHO 2010/ENETS classification, patients were stratified into two groups: those with grade 1 tumour (Ki-67 index ≤2 %, 19 patients), and those with grade 2 tumour (Ki-67 index >3 % to <20 %, 33 patients). On the basis of the FDG PET scan, 33 patients were classified as PET-positive (PET+) and 19 as PET-negative (PET?). Results FDG PET was positive in 57 % of patients with grade 1 NET and in 66 % of patients with grade 2 NET, and the rates of disease control (DC, i.e. complete response + partial response + stable disease) in grade 1 and grade 2 patients were 95 % and 79 %, respectively (P=0.232). In PET? and PET+ patients, the DC rates were 100 % and 76 % (P=0.020) with a PFS of 32 and 20 months, respectively (P=0.033). Of the PET+ patients with grade 1 NET, 91 % showed disease control, whereas about one in three PET+ patients with grade 2 NET (32 %) progressed after Lu-PRRT (DC rate 68 %). Conclusion These results suggest that FDG PET evaluation is useful for predicting response to Lu-PRRT in patients with grade 1/2 advanced NETs. Notably, none of PET? patients had progressed at the first follow-up examination after Lu-PRRT. Grade 2 NET and PET+ (arbitrary SUV cutoff >2.5) were frequently associated with more aggressive disease. PET+ patients with grade 2 NET, 32 % of whom did not respond to Lu-PRRT monotherapy, might benefit from more intensive therapy protocols, such as the combination of chemotherapy and PRRT. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zucchetto A.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Zucchetto A.,University of Milan | Ronco G.,Oncology Prevention Center | Giorgi Rossi P.,Reggio Emilia Local Healt Unit | And 20 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013

Objectives: To evaluate screening patterns within organized cervical screening programs (OCSPs) and survival of women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Methods: A population-based study was conducted in Italian areas covered by cancer registries and OCSPs. The study included all women aged 25-65. years diagnosed with ICC between 1995 and 2008, and their screening histories within OCSPs were retrieved. Hazard ratios (HR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed according to screening pattern, using Cox models adjusted for age, ICC stage, and major confounders. Results: Among 3268 women with ICC, 20% were never-invited to OCSP, 36% were never-compliant with OCSP's invitation, 33% were compliant and had a screen-detected ICC within OCSP (i.e., after a positive cytology), and 11% were compliant but had a non-screen-detected ICC. Screen-detected ICCs were more frequently micro-invasive (42%) compared to non-screen-detected ones (14%). Compared to women with screen-detected ICC, the adjusted HRs of death were 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.4) for those never-invited, 2.0 (95% CI 1.6-2.5) for never-compliant, and 1.7 (95% CI 1.3-2.4) for compliant women having non-screen-detected ICC. Conclusion: Prolonged survival, beyond down-staging, of women with ICC detected within OCSPs in Italy, further calls for improvements of OCSPs' invitational coverage and participation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Dal Maso L.,Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit | Dal Maso L.,University of Milan | Franceschi S.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Lise M.,Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit | And 5 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2010

Background: The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy). All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age.Results: A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year). The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age <35 years (OR = 1.4, compared to age ≥45 years), lower education level (OR = 1.3), first HIV-positive test in the last 2 years (OR = 1.4), and CD4 count <200 cells/μl (OR = 1.6). Conversely, when women were advised by a gynecologist rather than other health workers to undergo screening, it significantly increased adherence. Non-significantly higher proportions of lack of Pap-smear in the last year were found in women born in Central-Eastern Europe (OR = 1.8) and Africa (OR = 1.3). No difference in history of Pap-smear emerged by mode of HIV-acquisition or AIDS status.Three hundred five (34%) women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58%) referred for treatment, 97% complied.Conclusions: In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women. © 2010 Dal Maso et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Farolfi A.,Cancer Institute of Romagna IRST | Ridolfi L.,Cancer Institute of Romagna IRST | Guidoboni M.,Cancer Institute of Romagna IRST | Nicoletti S.V.L.,Cancer Institute of Romagna IRST | And 6 more authors.
Melanoma Research | Year: 2012

Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor prognosis; the results of chemotherapy remain unsatisfactory. Ipilimumab, an anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 antibody, has shown promising results in several clinical trials. In this report, advanced melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab were scored according to novel immune-related response criteria (irRC) in an attempt to capture additional response patterns and to avoid premature treatment cessation. Thirty-six heavily pretreated metastatic melanoma patients recieved ipilimumab within five international clinical trials at our Institution from May 2006 to August 2008. Disease progression was defined as an increase in tumor burden by at least 25% compared with the nadir, irrespective of any initial increase in baseline lesions or the appearance of new lesions. We report unusually long-lasting responses in patients treated with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg. An overall response was observed in six out of 30 patients (20%), a complete response in three (10%), and disease control in 11 (37%), which seemed to be of a long duration (median of 16 months; complete response 36+, 34+, and 41+ months). All irRC patterns seemed to be strongly associated with an improvement in overall survival. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the presence of a grade 3/4 immune-related adverse event and responses, time to progression, and overall survival. Ipilimumab therapy resulted in clinically meaningful responses in advanced melanoma patients, supporting the need for further irRC validation. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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