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Allenstown Elementary School, United States

Arai E.,National Cancer Center Research Institute | Wakai-Ushijima S.,National Cancer Center Research Institute | Fujimoto H.,National Cancer Center Hospital | Hosoda F.,Cancer Genomics Project | And 7 more authors.
Pathobiology | Year: 2011

Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in renal tumors of various histological subtypes. Methods: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array-based methylated CpG island amplification was performed using tissue samples of 17 patients with papillary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas, and the results were compared with those from 51 patients with clear cell RCCs. Results: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis based on DNA methylation status clustered type 1 and type 2 papillary RCCs into different subclasses. Although chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas were clustered into the same subclass, the DNA methylation status of 21 BAC clones was able to discriminate chromophobe RCCs from oncocytomas. The number of BAC clones showing DNA methylation alteration in non-tumorous renal tissue from patients with chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas was smaller than that from patients with clear cell RCCs. Biphasic accumulation of DNA methylation alterations was observed in non-tumorous renal tissue from all 68 patients, and patients showing such alterations on more BAC clones had a poorer outcome than patients showing them on fewer BAC clones. Conclusions: DNA methylation profiles determining the histological subtypes of renal tumors developing in individual patients and/or patient outcome may be already established in non-tumorous renal tissue at the precancerous stage. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Kurtovic-Kozaric A.,Taussig Cancer Institute | Kurtovic-Kozaric A.,University of Sarajevo | Przychodzen B.,Taussig Cancer Institute | Singh J.,Cleveland Clinic | And 16 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2015

Mutations of spliceosome components are common in myeloid neoplasms. One of the affected genes, PRPF8, encodes the most evolutionarily conserved spliceosomal protein. We identified either recurrent somatic PRPF8 mutations or hemizygous deletions in 15/447 and 24/450 cases, respectively. Fifty percent of PRPF8 mutant and del(17p) cases were found in AML and conveyed poor prognosis. PRPF8 defects correlated with increased myeloblasts and ring sideroblasts in cases without SF3B1 mutations. Knockdown of PRPF8 in K562 and CD34+ primary bone marrow cells increased proliferative capacity. Whole-RNA deep sequencing of primary cells from patients with PRPF8 abnormalities demonstrated consistent missplicing defects. In yeast models, homologous mutations introduced into Prp8 abrogated a block experimentally produced in the second step of the RNA splicing process, suggesting that the mutants have defects in proof-reading functions. In sum, the exploration of clinical and functional consequences suggests that PRPF8 is a novel leukemogenic gene in myeloid neoplasms with a distinct phenotype likely manifested through aberrant splicing. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Ojima H.,Pathology Division | Yoshikawa D.,Cancer Genomics Project | Ino Y.,Pathology Division | Shimizu H.,Cancer Genomics Project | And 15 more authors.
Cancer Science | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to establish new biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) cell lines and identify predictive biomarkers for the potential effectiveness of gemcitabine therapy. Surgical specimens of BTC were transplanted directly into immunodeficient mice to establish xenografts, then subjected to in vitro cell culture. The gemcitabine sensitivity of each cell line was determined and compared with the genome-wide gene expression profile. A new predictive biomarker candidate was validated using an additional cohort of gemcitabine-treated BTC cases. From 55 BTC cases, we established 19 xenografts and six new cell lines. Based on their gemcitabine sensitivity, 10 BTC cell lines (including six new and four publicly available ones) were clearly categorized into two groups, and MAGEH1 mRNA expression in the tumor cells showed a significant negative correlation with their sensitivity to gemcitabine. Immunohistochemically, MAGEH1 protein was detected in three (50%) out of six sensitive cell lines, and four (100%) out of four resistant cell lines. In the validation cohort of gemcitabine-treated recurrence cases, patients were categorized into "effective" and "non-effective" groups according to the RECIST guidelines for assessment of chemotherapeutic effects. MAGEH1 protein expression was detected in two (40%) out of five "effective" cases and all four (100%) "non-effective" cases. We have established a new BTC bioresource that covers a wide range of biological features, including drug sensitivity, and is linked with clinical information. Negative expression of MAGEH1 protein serves as a potential predictive marker for the effectiveness of gemcitabine therapy in BTC. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association. Source


Nakaya T.,Tokyo Medical University | Nakaya T.,University of Tokyo | Ogawa S.,Cancer Genomics Project | Manabe I.,Jichi Medical University | And 11 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2014

The intestinal epithelium maintains homeostasis by a self-renewal process involving resident stem cells, including Lgr5+ crypt-base columnar cells, but core mechanisms and their contributions to intestinal cancer are not fully defined. In this study, we examined a hypothesized role for KLF5, a zinc-finger transcription factor that is critical to maintain the integrity of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, in intestinal stem-cell integrity and cancer in the mouse. Klf5 was indispensable for the integrity and oncogenic transformation of intestinal stem cells. In mice, inducible deletion of Klf5 in Lgr5+ stem cells suppressed their proliferation and survival in a manner associated with nuclear localization of β-catenin (Catnb), generating abnormal apoptotic cells in intestinal crypts. Moreover, production of lethal adenomas and carcinomas by specific expression of an oncogenic mutant of β-catenin in Lgr5+ stem cells was suppressed completely by Klf5 deletion in the same cells. Given that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is the most frequently altered pathway in human colorectal cancer, our results argue that KLF5 acts as a fundamental core regulator of intestinal oncogenesis at the stem-cell level, and they suggest KLF5 targeting as a rational strategy to eradicate stem-like cells in colorectal cancer. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research. Source


Damm F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Damm F.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Mylonas E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mylonas E.,Institute Gustave Roussy | And 56 more authors.
Cancer Discovery | Year: 2014

Appropriate cancer care requires a thorough understanding of the natural history of the disease, including the cell of origin, the pattern of clonal evolution, and the functional consequences of the mutations. Using deep sequencing of flow-sorted cell populations from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we established the presence of acquired mutations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Mutations affected known lymphoid oncogenes, including BRAF, NOTCH1, and SF3B1. NFKBIE and EGR2 mutations were observed at unexpectedly high frequencies, 10.7% and 8.3% of 168 advanced-stage patients, respectively. EGR2 mutations were associated with a shorter time to treatment and poor overall survival. Analyses of BRAF and EGR2 mutations suggest that they result in deregulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) intracellular signaling. Our data propose disruption of hematopoietic and early B-cell differentiation through the deregulation of pre-BCR signaling as a phenotypic outcome of CLL mutations and show that CLL develops from a pre-leukemic phase. SIGNIFICANCE: The origin and pathogenic mechanisms of CLL are not fully understood. The current work indicates that CLL develops from pre-leukemic multipotent hematopoietic progenitors carrying somatic mutations. It advocates for abnormalities in early B-cell differentiation as a phenotypic convergence of the diverse acquired mutations observed in CLL. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

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