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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Ranes M.,Francis Crick Institute | Boeing S.,Francis Crick Institute | Wang Y.,Francis Crick Institute | Wienholz F.,Cancer Genomics Netherlands | And 10 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2016

Cockayne syndrome B (CSB), best known for its role in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), contains a ubiquitin-binding domain (UBD), but the functional connection between protein ubiquitylation and this UBD remains unclear. Here, we show that CSB is regulated via site-specific ubiquitylation. Mass spectrometry analysis of CSB identified lysine (K) 991 as a ubiquitylation site. Intriguingly, mutation of this residue (K991R) does not affect CSB's catalytic activity or protein stability, but greatly affects genome stability, even in the absence of induced DNA damage. Moreover, cells expressing CSB K991R are sensitive to oxidative DNA damage, but proficient for TC-NER. K991 becomes ubiquitylated upon oxidative DNA damage, and while CSB K991R is recruited normally to such damage, it fails to dissociate in a timely manner, suggesting a requirement for K991 ubiquitylation in CSB activation. Interestingly, deletion of CSB's UBD gives rise to oxidative damage sensitivity as well, while CSB ΔUBD and CSB K991R affects expression of overlapping groups of genes, further indicating a functional connection. Together, these results shed new light on the regulation of CSB, with K991R representing an important separation-of-function-mutation in this multi-functional protein. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. Source

Pfaffeneder T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Spada F.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Wagner M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Brandmayr C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 21 more authors.
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2014

Ten eleven translocation (Tet) enzymes oxidize the epigenetically important DNA base 5-methylcytosine (mC) stepwise to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine. It is currently unknown whether Tet-induced oxidation is limited to cytosine-derived nucleobases or whether other nucleobases are oxidized as well. We synthesized isotopologs of all major oxidized pyrimidine and purine bases and performed quantitative MS to show that Tet-induced oxidation is not limited to mC but that thymine is also a substrate that gives 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Using MS-based isotope tracing, we show that deamination of hmC does not contribute to the steady-state levels of hmU in mESCs. Protein pull-down experiments in combination with peptide tracing identifies hmU as a base that influences binding of chromatin remodeling proteins and transcription factors, suggesting that hmU has a specific function in stem cells besides triggering DNA repair. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. Source

Gourdin A.M.,Cancer Genomics Netherlands | van Cuijk L.,Cancer Genomics Netherlands | Tresini M.,Cancer Genomics Netherlands | Luijsterburg M.S.,University of Amsterdam | And 6 more authors.
DNA Repair | Year: 2014

The ability of replication protein A (RPA) to bind single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) underlines its crucial roles during DNA replication and repair. A combination of immunofluorescence and live cell imaging of GFP-tagged RPA70 revealed that RPA, in contrast to other replication factors, does not cluster into replication foci, which is explained by its short residence time at ssDNA. In addition to replication, RPA also plays a crucial role in both the pre- and post-incision steps of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Pre-incision factors like XPC and TFIIH accumulate rapidly at locally induced UV-damage and remain visible up to 4. h. However, RPA did not reach its maximum accumulation level until 3. h after DNA damage infliction and a chromatin-bound pool remained detectable up to 8. h, probably reflecting its role during the post-incision step of NER. During the pre-incision steps of NER, RPA could only be visualized at DNA lesions in incision deficient XP-F cells, however without a substantial increase in residence time at DNA damage. Together our data show that RPA is an intrinsically highly dynamic ssDNA-binding complex during both replication and distinct steps of NER. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Drost J.,Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and science KNAW | Van Jaarsveld R.H.,Cancer Genomics Netherlands | Van Jaarsveld R.H.,Molecular Cancer Research | Ponsioen B.,Cancer Genomics Netherlands | And 22 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain genetically and phenotypically stable. Here we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted gene modification of four of the most commonly mutated colorectal cancer genes (APC, P53 (also known as TP53), KRAS and SMAD4) in cultured human intestinal stem cells. Mutant organoids can be selected by removing individual growth factors from the culture medium. Quadruple mutants grow independently of all stem-cell-niche factors and tolerate the presence of the P53 stabilizer nutlin-3. Upon xenotransplantation into mice, quadruple mutants grow as tumours with features of invasive carcinoma. Finally, combined loss of APC and P53 is sufficient for the appearance of extensive aneuploidy, a hallmark of tumour progression. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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