Urdinguio R.G.,Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory IUOPA |
Fernandez A.F.,Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory IUOPA |
Moncada-Pazos A.,University of Oviedo |
Huidobro C.,Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory IUOPA |
And 15 more authors.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF/CSF2) is a cytokine produced in the hematologic compartment that may enhance antitumor immune responses, mainly by activation of dendritic cells. Here, we show that more than one-third of human colorectal tumors exhibit aberrant DNA demethylation of the GM-CSF promoter and overexpress the cytokine. Mouse engraftment experiments with autologous and homologous colon tumors engineered to repress the ectopic secretion of GM-CSF revealed the tumor-secreted GM-CSF to have an immune-associated antitumor effect. Unexpectedly, an immune-independent antitumor effect was observed that depended on the ectopic expression of GM-CSF receptor subunits by tumors. Cancer cells expressing GM-CSF and its receptor did not develop into tumors when autografted into immunocompetent mice. Similarly, 100% of the patients with human colon tumors that overexpressed GM-CSF and its receptor subunits survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. These data suggest that expression of GM-CSF and its receptor subunits by colon tumors may be a useful marker for prognosis as well as for patient stratification in cancer immunotherapy. ©2012 AACR. Source