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Gonzalez C.A.,Institute Catala dOncologia | Sanz-Anquela J.M.,University of Alcala | Companioni O.,Institute Catala dOncologia | Bonet C.,Institute Catala dOncologia | And 38 more authors.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia) | Year: 2016

Background and Aim: In high or moderate risk populations, periodic surveillance of patients at risk of progression from gastric precursor lesions (PL) to gastric cancer (GC) is the most effective strategy for reducing the burden of GC. Incomplete type of intestinal metaplasia (IIM) may be considered as the best candidate, but it is still controversial and more research is needed. To further assess the progression of subtypes of IM as predictors of GC occurrence. Methods: A follow-up study was carried-out including 649 patients, diagnosed with PL between 1995-2004 in 9 participating hospitals from Spain, and who repeated the biopsy during 2011-2013. Medical information and habits were collected through a questionnaire. Based on morphology, IM was sub-classified as complete (small intestinal type, CIM) and incomplete (colonic type, IIM). Analyses were done using Cox (HR) models. Results: At baseline, 24% of patients had atrophic gastritis, 38% CIM, 34% IIM, and 4% dysplasia. Mean follow-up was 12years. 24 patients (3.7%) developed a gastric adenocarcinoma during follow-up. The incidence rate of GC was 2.76 and 5.76 per 1,000 person-years for those with CIM and IIM, respectively. The HR of progression to CG was 2.75 (95% CI 1.06-6.26) for those with IIM compared with those with CIM at baseline, after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, family history of GC and use of NSAIDs. Conclusions: IIM is the PL with highest risk to progress to GC. Sub-typing of IM is a valid procedure for the identification of high risk patients that require more intensive surveillance. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

Rangel-Salazar R.,University of Guanajuato | Wickstrom-Lindholm M.,Lund University | Aguilar-Salinas C.A.,National Institute For Medical Science And Nutrition S Zubiran | Alvarado-Caudillo Y.,University of Guanajuato | And 11 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: We previously showed that a VLDL- and LDL-rich mix of human native lipoproteins induces a set of repressive epigenetic marks, i.e. de novo DNA methylation, histone 4 hypoacetylation and histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20) hypermethylation in THP-1 macrophages. Here, we: 1) ask what gene expression changes accompany these epigenetic responses; 2) test the involvement of candidate factors mediating the latter. We exploited genome expression arrays to identify target genes for lipoprotein-induced silencing, in addition to RNAi and expression studies to test the involvement of candidate mediating factors. The study was conducted in human THP-1 macrophages.Results: Native lipoprotein-induced de novo DNA methylation was associated with a general repression of various critical genes for macrophage function, including pro-inflammatory genes. Lipoproteins showed differential effects on epigenetic marks, as de novo DNA methylation was induced by VLDL and to a lesser extent by LDL, but not by HDL, and VLDL induced H4K20 hypermethylation, while HDL caused H4 deacetylation. The analysis of candidate factors mediating VLDL-induced DNA hypermethylation revealed that this response was: 1) surprisingly, mediated exclusively by the canonical maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, and 2) independent of the Dicer/micro-RNA pathway.Conclusions: Our work provides novel insights into epigenetic gene regulation by native lipoproteins. Furthermore, we provide an example of DNMT1 acting as a de novo DNA methyltransferase independently of canonical de novo enzymes, and show proof of principle that de novo DNA methylation can occur independently of a functional Dicer/micro-RNA pathway in mammals. © 2011 Rangel-Salazar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cordero A.,Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program | Pellegrini P.,Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program | Sanz-Moreno A.,Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program | Trinidad E.M.,Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program | And 4 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2016

Prolactin and áprogesterone both orchestrate the proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland during gestation. Differentiation of milk secreting alveoli depends on the presence of prolactin receptor, the downstream Jak2-Stat5 pathway and the transcription factor Elf5. A strict regulation of Rank signaling is essential for the differentiation of the mammary gland and in particular for alveolar commitment. Impaired alveologenesis and lactation failure are observed in both, knockout and Rank overexpressing mice; however, the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for these phenotypes remains largely unknown. Using genome-wide expression analyses and functional studies, we show here that Rankl (RL) exposure leads to impaired secretory differentiation of alveolar cells not only in MMTV-RANK but also in wild-type (WT) mammary acini. Conversely, pharmacological blockage of Rank signaling at midgestation in WT mice leads to precocious and exacerbated lactogenesis. Mechanistically, RL negatively regulates Stat5 phosphorylation and Elf5 expression at the onset of lactogenesis. Continuous RL exposure leads to the expansion of basal and bipotent cells in WT and MMTV-RANK acini. Overall, we demonstrate that enhanced Rank signaling impairs secretory differentiation during pregnancy by inhibition of the prolactin/p-Stat5 pathway. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

Nunez O.,National Health Research Institute | Roman A.,University of Barcelona | Johnson S.R.,University of Nottingham | Inoue Y.,National Hospital Organization Kinki chuo Chest Medical Center | And 32 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2016

Molecular evidence has linked the pathophysiology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) to that of metastatic breast cancer. Following on this observation, we assessed the association between LAM and subsequent breast cancer. An epidemiological study was carried out using three LAM country cohorts, from Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The number of incident breast cancer cases observed in these cohorts was compared with the number expected on the basis of the country-specific incidence rates for the period 2000–2014. Immunohistochemical studies and exome sequence analysis were performed in two and one tumors, respectively. All cohorts revealed breast cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) ≥ 2.25. The combined analysis of all cases or restricted to pre-menopausal age groups revealed significantly higher incidence of breast cancer: SIR = 2.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.32–5.57, P = 0.009; and SIR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 2.29–9.99, P = 0.0007, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses showed positivity for known markers of lung metastatic potential. This study suggests the existence of increased breast cancer risk among LAM patients. Prospective studies may be warranted to corroborate this result, which may be particularly relevant for pre-menopausal women with LAM. © 2016 The Author(s)

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