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San Giovanni Valdarno, Italy

Njor S.,Copenhagen University | Nystrom L.,Umea University | Moss S.,Queen Mary, University of London | Paci E.,Cancer Research and Prevention Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Screening | Year: 2012

Objectives To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation to screening. Methods We conducted a literature review and identified 20 publications based on IBM studies. They were classified according to the method used for estimating the expected breast cancer mortality in the absence of screening: (1) women not yet invited; (2) historical data from the same region as well as from historical and current data from a region without screening; and (3) historical comparison group combined with data for non-participants. Results The estimated effect of mammography screening on breast cancer mortality varied across studies. The relative risks were 0.76-0.81 in group 1; 0.75-0.90 in group 2; and 0.52-0.89 in group 3. Study databases overlapped in both Swedish and Finnish studies, adjustment for lead time was not optimal in all studies, and some studies had other methodological limitations. There was less variability in the relative risks after allowing for the methodological shortcomings. Conclusions Based on evidence from the most methodologically sound IBM studies, the most likely impact of European service mammography screening programmes was a breast cancer mortality reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 13-36%) among women invited for screening and followed up for 6-11 years. © 2012 by Economic Geology.

Smolina K.,Unit of Health Care Epidemiology | Wright F.L.,Cancer Epidemiology Unit | Rayner M.,Heart Health | Goldacre M.J.,Unit of Health Care Epidemiology
BMJ (Online) | Year: 2012

Objective: To report trends in event and case fatality rates for acute myocardial infarction and examine the relative contributions of changes in these rates to changes in total mortality from acute myocardial infarction by sex, age, and geographical region between 2002 and 2010. Design: Population based study using person linked routine hospital and mortality data. Setting: England. Participants: 840 175 people of all ages who were admitted to hospital for acute myocardial infarction or died suddenly from acute myocardial infarction. Main outcome measures: Acute myocardial infarction event, 30 day case fatality, and total mortality rates. Results: From 2002 to 2010 in England, the age standardised total mortality rate fell by about half, whereas the age standardised event and case fatality rates both declined by about one third. In men, the acute myocardial infarction event, case fatality, and total mortality rates declined at an average annual rate of, respectively, 4.8% (95% confidence interval 3.0% to 6.5%), 3.6% (3.4% to 3.7%), and 8.6% (5.4% to 11.6%). In women, the corresponding figures were 4.5% (1.7% to 7.1%), 4.2% (4.0% to 4.3%), and 9.1% (4.5% to 13.6%). Overall, the relative contributions of the reductions in event and case fatality rates to the decline in acute myocardial infarction mortality rate were, respectively, 57% and 43% in men and 52% and 48% in women; however, the relative contributions differed by age, sex, and geographical region. Conclusions: Just over half of the decline in deaths from acute myocardial infarction during the 2000s in England can be attributed to a decline in event rate and just less than half to improved survival at 30 days. Both prevention of acute myocardial infarction and acute medical treatment have contributed to the decline in deaths from acute myocardial infarction over the past decade.

Kunutsor S.K.,University of Cambridge | Apekey T.A.,University of Leeds | Van Hemelrijck M.,Cancer Epidemiology Unit | Calori G.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Perseghin G.,University of Milan
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

The prospective evidence for the associations of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with risk of cancer in the general population is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published prospective observational studies evaluating the associations of baseline levels of GGT and ALT with risk of overall (incidence and/or mortality) and site-specific cancers. Relevant studies were identified in a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, reference lists of relevant studies to April 2014 and email contact with investigators. Study specific relative risks (RRs) were meta-analyzed using random effects models. Fourteen cohort studies with data on 1.79 million participants and 57,534 cancer outcomes were included. Comparing top versus bottom thirds of baseline circulating GGT levels, pooled RRs (95% confidence intervals) were 1.32 (1.15-1.52) for overall cancer, 1.09 (0.95-1.24) for cancers of the breast and female genital organs, 1.09 (1.02-1.16) for cancers of male genital organs, 1.94 (1.35-2.79) for cancers of digestive organs and 1.33 (0.94-1.89) for cancers of respiratory and intrathoracic organs. For ALT, corresponding RRs for overall cancer were 0.96 (0.94-0.99) and 1.65 (1.52-1.79) in European and Asian populations, respectively. There was an increased risk of cancers of the digestive organs 2.44 (1.23-4.84). The pooled RR for overall cancer per 5 U/L increment in GGT levels was 1.04 (1.03-1.05). Available observational data indicate a positive log-linear association of GGT levels with overall cancer risk. The positive association was generally evident for site-specific cancers. There are geographical variations in the association of ALT and overall cancer. © 2014 UICC.

Zigon G.,Evaluative Epidemiology | Berrino F.,Evaluative Epidemiology | Gatta G.,Evaluative Epidemiology | Sanchez M.-J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Head and neck cancers are a heterogeneous group of malignancies, affecting various sites and subsites, with differing prognoses. The aim of this study was to analyse survival for European head and neck cancer patients in populations covered by population-based cancer registries (CRs), in relation to tumour subsite as prognostic factor. Patients and methods: We analysed 51 912 adult head and neck cancer cases (36 322 mouth-pharynx and 15 590 larynx) diagnosed from 1995 to 1999 and archived by 45 CRs in 20 countries participating in EUROCARE-4. Five-year age-standardised relative survival was estimated for mouth-pharynx and larynx sites by sex and country. Relative survival was modelled to provide estimates of relative excess risks (RERs) of death by country, adjusted for confounding factors. Results: A large but site-variable proportion of tumours were incompletely specified. Five-year age-standardised relative survival was low in Slovakia and high in The Netherlands. Adjustment for subsite reduced RERs of death for most countries; 5-year relative survival increased from 1990-1994 to 1995-1999 for all subsites, while betweencountry differences in survival narrowed. Conclusion: Differences in subsite distribution explain a considerable part of the survival differences for head and neck cancers, however, incomplete/inaccurate subsite reporting complicate interpretation. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Stiller C.A.,University of Oxford | Trama A.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori | Rossi S.,Cancer Epidemiology Unit | Navarro C.,Murcia Cancer Registry | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms arising from mesenchymal cells which encompass dozens of histological types and can occur in virtually any anatomic site. They form one of the principal groups of rare cancers in Europe as defined in the RARECARE project. We analysed 45,568 incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 76 population-based cancer registries. Total crude incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 27,908 new cases per year in the EU27 countries, of which 84% were soft tissue sarcomas and 14% were bone sarcomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) were only widely recognised as an entity in the late 1990s and consequently were under-registered. Their true incidence is believed to be about 1.5 per 100,000. Age-standardised incidence of soft tissue sarcomas ranged from 3.3 per 100,000 in Eastern Europe to 4.7 per 100,000 in Northern Europe. About 280,000 persons were estimated to be alive at the beginning of 2003 with a past diagnosis of sarcoma, of which 83% were soft tissue sarcomas and 16% were bone sarcomas. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period was 58% for soft tissue sarcomas and 62% for bone sarcomas. The diversity and rarity of sarcomas combined with the quite large number of people affected by them mean that they provide a classic example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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