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Mbulaiteye S.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Clarke C.A.,Cancer Prevention Institute of California | Clarke C.A.,Stanford University | Morton L.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Hematology | Year: 2013

Case reports of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in transplant recipients suggest that the risk is markedly elevated. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of BL in 203,557 solid organ recipients in the U.S. Transplant Cancer Match Study (1987-2009) and compared it with the general population using standardized incidence ratios. We also assessed associations with demographic and clinical characteristics, and treatments used to induce therapeutic immunosuppression. BL incidence was 10.8 per 100,000 person-years, representing 23-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 19-28) greater risk than in the general population, and it peaked 3-8 years after the time of transplantation. In adjusted analyses, BL incidence was higher in recipients transplanted when <18 vs. ≥35 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.49, 95% CI 2.08-5.68) and in those transplanted with a liver (IRR 2.91, 95% CI 1.68-5.09) or heart (IRR 2.39, 95% CI 1.30-4.31) compared with kidney. BL incidence was lower in females than males (IRR 0.45, 95% CI 0.28-0.71), in blacks than whites (IRR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.74), in those with a baseline Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seropositive versus EBV-seronegative status (IRR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.93), and in those treated with azathioprine (IRR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.89) or corticosteroids (IRR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.82). Tumors were EBV-positive in 69% of 32 cases with results. EBV positivity was 90% in those aged <18 years and 59% in those aged 18+ years. In conclusion, BL risk is markedly elevated in transplant recipients, and it is associated with certain demographic and clinical features. EBV was positive in most but not all BL cases with results. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Navarro Silvera S.A.,Montclair State University | Navarro Silvera S.A.,University of Waterloo | Mayne S.T.,Yale University | Risch H.A.,Yale University | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Purpose: To carry out pattern analyses of dietary and lifestyle factors in relation to risk of esophageal and gastric cancers. Methods: We evaluated risk factors for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and other gastric cancers (OGA) using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Connecticut, New Jersey, and western Washington state. Dietary/lifestyle patterns were created using principal component analysis (PCA). Impact of the resultant scores on cancer risk was estimated through logistic regression. Results: PCA identified six patterns: meat/nitrite, fruit/vegetable, smoking/alcohol, legume/meat alternate, GERD/BMI, and fish/vitamin C. Risk of each cancer under study increased with rising meat/nitrite score. Risk of EA increased with increasing GERD/BMI score, and risk of ESCC rose with increasing smoking/alcohol score and decreasing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)/body mass index (BMI) score. Fruit/vegetable scores were inversely associated with EA, ESCC, and GCA. Conclusions: PCA may provide a useful approach for summarizing extensive dietary/lifestyle data into fewer interpretable combinations that discriminate between cancer cases and controls. The analyses suggest that meat/nitrite intake is associated with elevated risk of each cancer under study, whereas fruit/vegetable intake reduces risk of EA, ESCC, and GCA. GERD/obesity were confirmed as risk factors for EA and smoking/alcohol as risk factors for ESCC. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ivy W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Nesheim S.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Chan M.,Communicable Disease Service | Niu X.,Cancer Epidemiology Services | Lampe M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2015

Background: Concerns remain regarding the cancer risk associated with perinatal antiretroviral (ARV) exposure among infants. No excessive cancer risk has been found in short-term studies. Methods: Children born to HIV-infected women (HIV-exposed) in New Jersey from 1995 to 2008 were identified through the Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System and cross-referenced with data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry to identify new cases of cancer among children who were perinatally exposed to ARV. Matching of individuals in the Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System to the New Jersey State Cancer Registry was conducted based on name, birth date, Social Security number, residential address, and sex using AutoMatch. Age- and sex-standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and exact 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using New Jersey (1979-2005) and US (1999-2009) cancer rates. Results: Among 3087 children (29,099 person-years; median follow-up: 9.8 years), 4 were diagnosed with cancer. Cancer incidence among HIV-exposed children who were not exposed to ARV prophylaxis (22.5 per 100,000 person-years) did not differ significantly from the incidence among children who were exposed to any perinatal ARV prophylaxis (14.3 per 100,000 person-years). Furthermore, the number of cases observed among individuals exposed to ARV did not differ significantly from cases expected based on state (SIR 1.21; 95% CI: 0.25 to 3.54) and national (SIR 1.27; 95% CI: 0.26 to 3.70) reference rates. Conclusions: Our findings are reassuring that current use of ARV for perinatal HIV prophylaxis does not increase cancer risk. We found no evidence to alter the current federal guidelines of 2014 that recommend ARV prophylaxis of HIV-exposed infants. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source

Lansdorp-Vogelaar I.,Erasmus MC | Goede S.L.,Erasmus MC | Ma J.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Xiau-Cheng W.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | And 3 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND Northeastern states of the United States have shown more progress in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates than Southern states, and this has resulted in considerable disparities. This study quantified how the disparities in CRC rates between Louisiana (a Southern state) and New Jersey (a Northeastern state) would be affected if differences in risk factors, screening, and stage-specific CRC relative survival between the states were eliminated. METHODS This study used the Microsimulation Screening Analysis Colon microsimulation model to estimate age-adjusted CRC incidence and mortality rates in Louisiana from 1995 to 2009 under the assumption that 1) Louisiana had the same smoking and obesity prevalence observed in New Jersey, 2) Louisiana had the same CRC screening uptake observed in New Jersey, 3) Louisiana had the same stage-specific CRC relative survival observed in New Jersey, or 4) all the preceding were true. RESULTS In 2009, the observed CRC incidence and mortality rates in Louisiana were 141.4 cases and 61.9 deaths per 100,000 individuals, respectively. With the same risk factors and screening observed in New Jersey, the CRC incidence rate in Louisiana was reduced by 3.5% and 15.2%, respectively. New Jersey's risk factors, screening, and survival reduced the CRC mortality rate in Louisiana by 3.0%, 10.8%, and 17.4%, respectively. With all trends combined, the modeled rates per 100,000 individuals in Louisiana became lower than the observed rates in New Jersey for both incidence (116.4 vs 130.0) and mortality (44.7 vs 55.8). CONCLUSIONS The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates between Louisiana and New Jersey could be eliminated if Louisiana could attain New Jersey's levels of risk factors, screening, and survival. Priority should be given to enabling Southern states to improve screening and survival rates. © 2015 American Cancer Society. Source

Arron S.T.,University of California at San Francisco | Raymond A.K.,University of California at San Francisco | Yanik E.L.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Castenson D.,Information Management Services | And 4 more authors.
Dermatologic Surgery | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND There are limited data on outcomes in transplant recipients with a history of pretransplant melanoma. OBJECTIVE To determine whether pretransplant melanoma is associated with differences in survival or posttransplant melanoma risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS We evaluated the outcomes of 185,039 US transplant recipients from the Transplant Cancer Match Study. We also evaluated the impact of transplantation on 141,441 patients with melanoma identified in cancer registries. RESULTS There were 336 transplant recipients (0.18%) with pretransplant melanoma; they had increased risk of melanoma-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11-64, p < .0001), overall mortality (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5, p = .02), and incident melanoma (HR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.9-9.8, p < .0001) after transplant, compared with recipients without pretransplant melanoma. The 10-year absolute risk difference was 2.97% for melanoma-specific mortality, 3.68% for incident melanoma, and 14.32% for overall mortality. Among the 141,441 patients with melanoma in the general population, 68 (0.05%) subsequently received a transplant. Transplantation increased melanoma-specific mortality, but not significantly (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.61-4.5, p = .32). CONCLUSION Pretransplant melanoma is associated with increased melanoma-specific mortality, overall mortality, and incident melanoma after transplant. Nonetheless, the rarity of melanoma-related events supports the current practice for listing transplant candidates with a history of melanoma. © 2016 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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