Cancer Data Registry of Idaho

Idaho City, ID, United States

Cancer Data Registry of Idaho

Idaho City, ID, United States
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Allemani C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Weir H.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Carreira H.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Harewood R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 19 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. Methods Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15-99 years) and 75 000 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995-2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Findings 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005-09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15-19% in North America, and as low as 7-9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10-20% between 1995-99 and 2005-09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer, national estimates of 5-year survival range from less than 50% to more than 70%; regional variations are much wider, and improvements between 1995-99 and 2005-09 have generally been slight. For women diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2005-09, 5-year survival was 40% or higher only in Ecuador, the USA, and 17 countries in Asia and Europe. 5-year survival for stomach cancer in 2005-09 was high (54-58%) in Japan and South Korea, compared with less than 40% in other countries. By contrast, 5-year survival from adult leukaemia in Japan and South Korea (18-23%) is lower than in most other countries. 5-year survival from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is less than 60% in several countries, but as high as 90% in Canada and four European countries, which suggests major deficiencies in the management of a largely curable disease. Interpretation International comparison of survival trends reveals very wide differences that are likely to be attributable to differences in access to early diagnosis and optimum treatment. Continuous worldwide surveillance of cancer survival should become an indispensable source of information for cancer patients and researchers and a stimulus for politicians to improve health policy and health-care systems. Funding Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (Toronto, Canada), Cancer Focus Northern Ireland (Belfast, UK), Cancer Institute New South Wales (Sydney, Australia), Cancer Research UK (London, UK), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA), Swiss Re (London, UK), Swiss Cancer Research foundation (Bern, Switzerland), Swiss Cancer League (Bern, Switzerland), and University of Kentucky (Lexington, KY, USA). © 2015 Allemani et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.


Johnson C.J.,Cancer Data Registry of Idaho | Fink A.K.,ICF Macro | German R.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology | Year: 2012

Death certificates are the source for mortality statistics and are used to set public health goals. Accurate death certificates are vital in tracking outcomes of cancer. Deaths may be certified by physicians or other medical professionals, coroners, or medical examiners. Idaho is one of 3 states that participated in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded study to assess the concordance between cancer-specific causes of death and primary cancer site among linked cancer registry/death certificate data. We investigated variability in the accuracy of cancer death certificates by characteristics of death certifiers, including certifier type (physician vs coroner), physician specialty, years of experience as death certifier, and number of deaths certified. This study showed significant differences by certifier type/physician specialty in the accuracy of cancer mortality measured by death certificates. Nonphysician coroners had lower accuracy rates compared with physicians. Although nonphysician coroners certified less than 5% of cancer deaths in Idaho, they were significantly less likely to match the primary site from the cancer registry. Results from this study may be useful in the future training of death certifiers to improve the accuracy of death certificates and cancer mortality statistics. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Introduction: The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides access to breast and cervical cancer screening for low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women in all states and US territories. In Idaho, a rural state with very low breast and cervical cancer screening rates, this program is called Women's Health Check (WHC). The program has been operating continuously since 1997 and served 4,719 enrollees in 2013. The objective of this study was to assess whether disparities existed in cause-specific survival (a net survival measure representing survival of a specified cause of death in the absence of other causes of death) between women screened by WHC and outside WHC and to determine how type of surgery or survival varies with stage at diagnosis. Methods: WHC data were linked to Idaho's central cancer registry to compare stage distribution, type of surgery, and cause-specific survival between women with WHC-linked breast cancer and a comparison group of women whose records did not link to the WHC database (nonlinked breast cancer). Results: WHC-linked breast cancer was significantly more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage of disease than nonlinked breast cancer. Because of differences in stage distribution between WHC-linked and nonlinked breast cancers, overall age-standardized, cause-specific breast cancer survival proportions diverged over time, with a 5.1 percentage-point deficit in survival among WHC-linked cases at 5 years of follow-up (83.9% vs 89.0%). Differences in type of surgery and cause-specific survival were attenuated when controlling for stage. Conclusion: This study suggests that disparities may exist for Idaho WHC enrollees in the timely diagnosis of breast cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first study to publish comparisons of cause-specific breast cancer survival between NBCCEDP-linked and nonlinked cases.


Weir H.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Johnson C.J.,Cancer Data Registry of Idaho | Mariotto A.B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Turner D.,Cancer Care Manitoba | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute - Monographs | Year: 2014

Follow-up procedures vary among cancer registries in North America. US registries are funded by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and/or the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). SEER registries ascertain vital status and date of last contact to meet follow-up standards. NPCR and Canadian registries primarily conduct linkages with local and national death records to ascertain deaths. Data on patients diagnosed between 2002 through 2006 and followed through 2007 were obtained from 51 registries. Registries that met follow-up standards or, at a minimum, conducted linkages with local and national death records had comparable age-standardized five-year survival estimates (all sites and races combined): 63.9% SEER, 63.1% NPCR, and 62.6% Canada. Estimates varied by cancer site. Survival data from registries using different follow-up procedures are comparable if death ascertainment is complete and all nondeceased patients are presumed to be alive to the end of the study period.


German R.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Fink A.K.,ICF Macro | Heron M.,National Center for Health Statistics | Stewart S.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: One measure of the accuracy of cancer mortality statistics is the concordance between cancer defined as the underlying cause of death from death certificates and cancer diagnoses recorded in central, population-based cancer registries. Previous studies of such concordance are outdated. Objective: To characterize the accuracy of cancer mortality statistics from the concordance between cancer cause of death and primary cancer site at diagnosis. Design: Central cancer registry records from California, Colorado, and Idaho in the U.S. were linked with state vital statistics data and evaluated by demographic and tumor information across 79 site categories. A retrospective arm (confirmation rate per 100 deaths) compared death certificate data from 2002 to 2004 with cancer registry diagnoses from 1993 to 2004, while a prospective arm (detection rate per 100 deaths) compared cancer registry diagnoses from 1993 to 1995 with death certificate data from 1993 to 2004 by International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) version used to code deaths. Results: With n=265,863 deaths where cancer was recorded as the underlying cause based on the death certificate, the overall confirmation rate for ICD-10 was 82.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.6-83.0%), the overall detection rate for ICD-10 was 81.0% (95% CI, 80.4-81.6%), and the overall detection rate for ICD-9 was 85.0% (95% CI, 84.8-85.2%). These rates varied across primary sites, where some rates were <50%, some were 95% or greater, and notable differences between confirmation and detection rates were observed. Conclusions: Important unique information on the quality of cancer mortality data obtained from death certificates is provided. In addition, information is provided for future studies of the concordance of primary cancer site between population-based cancer registry data and data from death certificates, particularly underlying causes of death coded in ICD-10. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Weir H.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Johnson C.J.,Cancer Data Registry of Idaho | Thompson T.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2013

Purpose Different rules for registering multiple primary (MP) cancers are used by cancer registries throughout the world, making international data comparisons difficult. This study evaluates the effect of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR) MP rules on population-based cancer survival estimates. Methods Data from five US states and six metropolitan area cancer registries participating in the SEER Program were used to estimate age-standardized relative survival (RS%) for first cancers-only and all first cancers matching the selection criteria according to SEER and IACR MP rules for all cancer sites combined and for the top 25 cancer site groups among men and women. Results During 1995-2008, the percentage of MP cancers (all sites, both sexes) increased 25.4 % by using SEER rules (from 14.6 to 18.4 %) and 20.1 % by using IACR rules (from 13.2 to 15.8 %). More MP cancers were registered among females than among males, and SEER rules registered more MP cancers than IACR rules (15.8 vs. 14.4 % among males; 17.2 vs. 14.5 % among females). The top 3 cancer sites with the largest differences were melanoma (5.8 %), urinary bladder (3.5 %), and kidney and renal pelvis (2.9 %) among males, and breast (5.9 %), melanoma (3.9 %), and urinary bladder (3.4 %) among females. Fiveyear survival estimates (all sites combined) restricted to first primary cancers-only were higher than estimates by using first site-specific primaries (SEER or IACR rules), and for 11 of 21 sites among males and 11 of 23 sites among females. SEER estimates are comparable to IACR estimates for all site-specific cancers and marginally higher for all sites combined among females (RS 62.28 vs. 61.96 %). Conclusion Survival after diagnosis has improved for many leading cancers. However, cancer patients remain at risk of subsequent cancers. Survival estimates based on first cancers-only exclude a large and increasing number of MP cancers. To produce clinically and epidemiologically relevant and less biased cancer survival estimates, data on all cancers should be included in the analysis. The multiple primary rules (SEER or IACR) used to identify primary cancers do not affect survival estimates if all first cancers matching the selection criteria are used to produce sitespecific survival estimates © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.


Watson M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Johnson C.J.,Cancer Data Registry of Idaho | Chen V.W.,Louisiana Tumor Registry | Thomas C.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Background: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Melanoma skin cancer is particularly deadly; more than 8000 US residents die from it each year. Although recent reports suggest that melanoma incidence rates have been increasing, these apparent increases could be caused by an increase in reporting and/or screening, and by an actual increase in the occurrence of melanoma. Objective: In this report, we describe methods used in this supplement to assess the current burden of melanoma in the United States using data from two federal cancer surveillance programs: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We also provide basic descriptive epidemiologic data about melanoma in the United States. Methods: Cancer incidence data from population-based cancer registries that participate in the CDC National Program of Cancer Registries and/or the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program covering 78% of the US population for 2004 to 2006 were used. Results: Over 45 thousand melanomas were diagnosed annually, with a rate of 19 cases per 100,000 persons. Limitations: Melanoma rates may vary because of differences in reporting, diagnosis, and screening. Conclusion: To our knowledge, the articles in this supplement constitute the first comprehensive examination of the overall burden of melanoma in the United States based on data from a majority of the US population. © 2011 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.


Singh S.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ajani U.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Johnson C.J.,Cancer Data Registry of Idaho | Roland K.B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with melanoma incidence and outcomes. Examination of the relationship between melanoma and SES at the national level in the United States is limited. Expanding knowledge of this association is needed to improve early detection and eliminate disparities. Objective: We sought to provide a detailed description of cutaneous melanoma incidence and stage of disease in relationship to area-based socioeconomic measures including poverty level, education, income, and unemployment in the United States. Methods: Invasive cutaneous melanoma data reported by 44 population-based central cancer registries for 2004 to 2006 were merged with county-level SES estimates from the US Census Bureau. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated by gender, race/ethnicity, poverty, education, income, unemployment, and metro/urban/rural status using software. Poisson multilevel mixed models were fitted, and incidence density ratios were calculated by stage for area-based SES measures, controlling for age, gender, and state random effects. Results: Counties with lower poverty, higher education, higher income, and lower unemployment had higher age-adjusted melanoma incidence rates for both early and late stage. In multivariate models, SES effects persisted for early-stage but not late-stage melanoma incidence. Limitations: Individual-level measures of SES were unavailable, and estimates were based on county-level SES measures. Conclusion: Our findings show that melanoma incidence in the United States is associated with aggregate county-level measures of high SES. Analyses using finer-level SES measures, such as individual or census tract level, are needed to provide more precise estimates of these associations. © 2011 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.


Boscoe F.P.,New York State Cancer Registry | Johnson C.J.,Cancer Data Registry of Idaho | Sherman R.L.,University of Miami | Stinchcomb D.G.,Westat Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND The relationship between socioeconomic status and cancer incidence in the United States has not traditionally been a focus of population-based cancer surveillance systems. METHODS Nearly 3 million tumors diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 16 states plus Los Angeles were assigned into 1 of 4 groupings based on the poverty rate of the residential census tract at time of diagnosis. The sex-specific risk ratio of the highest-to-lowest poverty category was measured using Poisson regression, adjusting for age and race, for 39 cancer sites. RESULTS For all sites combined, there was a negligible association between cancer incidence and poverty; however, 32 of 39 cancer sites showed a significant association with poverty (14 positively associated and 18 negatively associated). Nineteen of these sites had monotonic increases or decreases in risk across all 4 poverty categories. The sites most strongly associated with higher poverty were Kaposi sarcoma, larynx, cervix, penis, and liver; those most strongly associated with lower poverty were melanoma, thyroid, other nonepithelial skin, and testis. Sites associated with higher poverty had lower incidence and higher mortality than those associated with lower poverty. CONCLUSIONS These findings demonstrate the importance and relevance of including a measure of socioeconomic status in national cancer surveillance. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.


Johnson C.J.,Cancer Data Registry of Idaho
Journal of registry management | Year: 2010

This study was designed to measure the impact of variation in patient follow-up on survival statistics. surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) data were used to construct four additional datasets. These datasets simulated scenarios of complete, incomplete, and no follow-up of live patients; and complete and incomplete death ascertainment. Sixty-month observed survival proportions were calculated using the actual SEER data and the four additional datasets. The 60-month observed survival proportion increased from 54.44% under the original SEER dataset to 54.62% under complete ascertainment of deaths with no follow-up among live patients. Under complete death ascertainment, randomly imputing loss to follow-up among 20% of live cases resulted in a 1%-2% decrease in 60-month observed survival for 71 of the 102 SEER site categories. With follow-up limited to ascertainment of deaths, randomly missing 6% of deaths resulted in a 1% or greater increase in 60-month observed survival for 99 SEER site categories. This study provides evidence to support the importance of complete death ascertainment for producing accurate cancer survival statistics, and that ascertainment of deaths only should generally be sufficient for survival analysis.

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