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Buller D.B.,Klein Buendel, Inc. | Young W.F.,Klein Buendel, Inc. | Bettinghaus E.P.,Klein Buendel, Inc. | Borland R.,Cancer Council of Victoria | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2011

CONTEXT: A state budget shortfall defunded 10 local tobacco coalitions during a randomized trial but defunded coalitions continued to have access to 2 technical assistance Web sites. OBJECTIVE: To test the ability of Web-based technology to provide technical assistance to local tobacco control coalitions. DESIGN: Randomized 2-group trial with local tobacco control coalitions as the unit of randomization. SETTING: Local communities (ie, counties) within the State of Colorado. Participants: Leaders and members in 34 local tobacco control coalitions funded by the state health department in Colorado. Intervention: Two technical assistance Web sites: A Basic Web site with text-based information and a multimedia Enhanced Web site containing learning modules, resources, and communication features. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Use of the Web sites in minutes, pages, and session and evaluations of coalition functioning on coalition development, conflict resolution, leadership satisfaction, decision-making satisfaction, shared mission, personal involvement, and organization involvement in survey of leaders and members. RESULTS: Coalitions that were defunded but had access to the multimedia Enhanced Web site during the Fully Funded period and after defunding continued to use it (treatment group x funding status x period, F3,714 = 3.18, P = .0234). Coalitions with access to the Basic Web site had low Web site use throughout and use by defunded coalitions was nearly zero when funding ceased. Members in defunded Basic Web site coalitions reported that their coalitions functioned worse than defunded Enhanced Web site coalitions (coalition development: group x status, F 1,360 = 4.81, P = .029; conflict resolution: group x status, F 1,306 = 5.69, P = .018; leadership satisfaction: group x status, F1,342 = 5.69, P = .023). CONCLUSIONS: The Enhanced Web site may have had a protective effect on defunded coalitions. Defunded coalitions may have increased their capacity by using the Enhanced Web site when fully funded or by continuing to use the available online resources after defunding. Web-based technical assistance with online training and resources may be a good investment when future funding is not ensured. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Source


Burns D.M.,University of California at San Diego | Anderson C.M.,University of California at San Diego | Gray N.,Cancer Council of Victoria
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2011

Background: Incidence rates for adenocarcinoma of the lung are increasing and are higher in the United States than in many other developed countries. We examine whether these trends may be associated with changes in cigarette design. Methods: Lung cancer risk equations based on observations during 1960-1972 from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I are applied to 5-year birth cohort-specific estimates of changes in smoking behaviors to predict birth cohort-specific rates of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung among US White men for the period 1973-2000. These expected rates are compared to observed rates for the same birth cohorts of White men in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Results: Changes in smoking behaviors over the past several decades adequately explain the changes in squamous cell carcinoma rates observed in the SEER data. However, predicted rates for adenocarcinoma do not match the observed SEER data without inclusion of a term increasing the risk for adenocarcinoma with the duration of smoking after 1965. Conclusion: The risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma from smoking appears to have remained stable in the United States over the past several decades; however, the risk of adenocarcinoma has increased substantially in a pattern temporally associated with changes in cigarette design. © 2010 The Author(s). Source


Burns D.M.,University of California at San Diego | Anderson C.M.,University of California at San Diego | Gray N.,Cancer Council of Victoria
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2011

Background We examine whether the lung cancer risk due to smoking has increased over time. Methods Lung cancer risk equations based on prospective mortality data collected from 1960 to 1972 were applied to 5-year birth-cohort-specific estimates of smoking behaviors among white males to estimate lung cancer mortality rates for U.S. white males from 1960 to 2000. These estimated rates were compared to U.S. white male mortality rates for the same birth cohorts. Results Observed birth-cohort-specific U.S. lung cancer mortality rates are substantially higher than those expected from changes in smoking behaviors, and the proportional difference increases with advancing calendar year. This trend persisted even when the duration term was increased in the risk equation. However, adjusting for changes in cigarette design over time by adding a term for the duration of smoking after 1972 resulted in the predicted rates closely approximating the observed U.S. mortality rates. Conclusion Lung cancer risk estimates observed during the 1960s under predict current lung cancer mortality rates in U.S. white males. Adjustment for the duration of smoking after 1972 results in estimates that reasonably approximate the observed U.S. lung cancer mortality, suggesting that lung cancer risks from smoking are increasing in the United States coincident with changes in cigarette design. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010. Source


Perl R.,World Lung Foundation | Murukutla N.,World Lung Foundation | Occleston J.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | Bayly M.,Cancer Council of Victoria | And 3 more authors.
Tobacco Control | Year: 2015

Background This study examined whether adaptation of existing antitobacco television and radio advertisements (ads) from high-income countries is a viable tobacco control strategy for Africa. Methods 1078 male and female adult smokers and non-smokers, aged 18-40 years, from major and smaller urban locations in Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal, were recruited into groups using locally appropriate convenience sampling methods and stratified by smoking status, gender, age and socioeconomic status. Eligibility criteria included age, smoking status and literacy. Each participant rated five radio and five TV antismoking ads on five-point scales, which were later aggregated into measures of perceived effectiveness, potential behaviour change and antitobacco industry sentiment/support for government actions. Results For radio ads across all three countries, two health harms-focused ads—Coughing Child followed by Suffering—had the highest odds of a positive rating on the Perceived Effectiveness measure among smokers and non-smokers. For television ads, the strong graphic ad Baby Alive tended to be rated most positively across the majority of measures by all subgroups. Conclusions This first systematic study of tobacco control advertisements in Africa is consistent with findings from other countries, suggesting that graphic health-harms ads developed and used in other countries could also be effective in African countries. This implies that adaptation would be a successful approach in Africa, where scarce resources for tobacco control communications can be focused on advertising dissemination, saving programmes from the cost, time and technical expertise required for development of new materials. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source


Lee W.B.,University of Western Ontario | Fong G.T.,University of Waterloo | Dewhirst T.,University of Guelph | Kennedy R.D.,Johns Hopkins University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Health Communication | Year: 2015

Antismoking mass media campaigns are known to be effective as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs in high-income countries, but such campaigns are relatively new in low- and middle-income countries and there is a need for strong evaluation studies from these regions. This study examines Malaysia's first national antismoking campaign, TAK NAK. The data are from the International Tobacco Control Malaysia Survey, which is an ongoing cohort survey of a nationally representative sample of adult smokers (18 years and older; N = 2,006). The outcome variable was quit intentions of adult smokers, and the authors assessed the extent to which quit intentions may have been strengthened by exposure to the antismoking campaign. The authors also tested whether the impact of the campaign on quit intentions was related to cognitive mechanisms (increasing thoughts about the harm of smoking), affective mechanisms (increasing fear from the campaign), and perceived social norms (increasing perceived social disapproval about smoking). Mediational regression analyses revealed that thoughts about the harm of smoking, fear arousal, and social norms against smoking mediated the relation between TAK NAK impact and quit intentions. Effective campaigns should prompt smokers to engage in both cognitive and affective processes and encourage consideration of social norms about smoking in their society. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2015. Source

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