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Roscoe J.A.,University of Rochester | Morrow G.R.,University of Rochester | Aapro M.S.,IMO Clinique de Genolier | Molassiotis A.,University of Manchester | Olver I.,Cancer Council Australia
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2011

A commonly reported consequence of post-treatment nausea or vomiting is the development of anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV). In most published work, nausea is reported to occur before chemotherapy drugs are administered by approximately 20% of patients at any one chemotherapy cycle and by 25-30% of patients by their fourth chemotherapy cycle. Most studies in adult patients strongly support the view that the development of ANV involves elements of classical conditioning. The best method to avoid development of ANV is to adequately prevent both vomiting and nausea from the first exposure to chemotherapy. If anticipatory side effects develop, behavioral treatment techniques, such as systematic desensitization, have been shown effective. Benzodiazepines used in combination with behavioral techniques or antiemetics may also be useful. The evidence on which these conclusions are based is reviewed in this article. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Assunta M.,Cancer Council Australia | Dorotheo E.U.,Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance
Tobacco Control | Year: 2016

Objective To measure the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 5.3 at country level using a new Tobacco Industry Interference Index and to report initial results using this index in seven Southeast Asian countries. Methods Score sheet based on WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines sent to correspondents in seven Southeast Asian countries, using a scoring system designed with the help of tobacco control experts and validated through focused group discussions. Results The seven countries ranked from the lowest level of interference to the highest are Brunei, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Countries that face high levels of unnecessary interaction with the tobacco industry also face high levels of tobacco industry influence in policy development. Most governments do not allow any tobacco industry representatives on their delegation to sessions of the Conference of the Parties or its subsidiary bodies nor accept their sponsorship for delegates, but most governments still accept or endorse offers of assistance from the tobacco industry in implementing tobacco control policies. Most governments also receive tobacco industry contributions (monetary or in kind) or endorse industry corporate social responsibility activities. Governments do not have a procedure for disclosing interactions with the tobacco industry, but Lao PDR, Philippines and Thailand have instituted measures to prevent or reduce industry interference. Conclusions This Tobacco Industry Interference Index, based on the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 Guidelines, is a useful advocacy tool for identifying both progress and gaps in national efforts at implementing WHO FCTC Article 5.3. © 2016, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Smith A.B.,University of Sydney | King M.,University of Sydney | Butow P.,University of Sydney | Olver I.,Cancer Council Australia
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2013

Objective We aimed to compare data quality from online and postal questionnaires and to evaluate the practicality of these different questionnaire modes in a cancer sample. Methods Participants in a study investigating the psychosocial sequelae of testicular cancer could choose to complete a postal or online version of the study questionnaire. Data quality was evaluated by assessing sources of nonobservational errors such as participant nonresponse, item nonresponse and sampling bias. Time taken and number of reminders required for questionnaire return were used as indicators of practicality. Results Participant nonresponse was significantly higher among participants who chose the postal questionnaire. The proportion of questionnaires with missing items and the mean number of missing items did not differ significantly by mode. A significantly larger proportion of tertiary-educated participants and managers/professionals completed the online questionnaire. There were no significant differences in age, relationship status, employment status, country of birth or language spoken by completion mode. Compared with postal questionnaires, online questionnaires were returned significantly more quickly and required significantly fewer reminders. Conclusions These results demonstrate that online questionnaire completion can be offered in a cancer sample without compromising data quality. In fact, data quality from online questionnaires may be superior due to lower rates of participant nonresponse. Investigators should be aware of potential sampling bias created by more highly educated participants and managers/professionals choosing to complete online questionnaires. Besides this issue, online questionnaires offer an efficient method for collecting high-quality data, with faster return and fewer reminders. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Best M.,University of Sydney | Butow P.,University of Sydney | Olver I.,Cancer Council Australia
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2014

Purpose: Spiritual care is reported as important for cancer patients, but the role of the doctor in its provision is unclear. We undertook to understand the nature of spiritual support for Australian cancer patients and their preferences regarding spiritual care from doctors. Methods: Using grounded theory, semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 cancer patients with advanced disease in a variety of care settings. Patients were asked about the source of their spiritual support and how they would like their doctors to engage with them on spiritual issues. Results: Three themes were identified as follows: (1) sources of spiritual support which helped patients cope with illness and meet spiritual needs, (2) facilitators of spiritual support, and (3) role of the doctor in spiritual support. Regardless of religious background, the majority of patients wanted their doctor to ask about their source of spiritual support and facilitate access to it. Patients did not want spiritual guidance from their doctors, but wanted to be treated holistically and to have a good relationship, which allowed them to discuss their fears. Doctors' understanding of the spiritual dimension of the patient was part of this. Conclusions: Spirituality is a universal phenomenon. Patients in a secular society want their doctor to take an interest in their spiritual support and facilitate access to it during illness. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

Best M.,Palliative Care | Best M.,University of Sydney | Butow P.,University of Sydney | Olver I.,Cancer Council Australia
Palliative Medicine | Year: 2014

Results: Patients were observed to be along a spectrum between having peace and not having peace. Features of the two extreme positions are described. Doctors could facilitate peace by developing a good relationship with cancer patients and supplying clear and honest information about what patients could expect as they approached their death.Conclusion: Spiritual well-being in cancer patients can be promoted by communication from doctors regarding prognosis, which allows them time to prepare for death, and recognition of their fears. However, acceptance of death does not always lead to the patient experiencing peace.Background: Being at peace is important for the quality of life of dying cancer patients, but its features, and the role of the doctor in facilitating peace, are unclear.Aim: We sought to understand the features of a peaceful patient, and patients' preferences regarding the role of the doctor in facilitating a sense of peace.Design: A grounded theory approach was used with semi-structured interviews. Patients were asked about the things that gave their life meaning and a sense of peace and how the doctor could support their spiritual well-being. Patients were also questioned about their concerns for their future.Setting/participants: In total, 15 cancer patients with advanced disease were interviewed in a variety of care settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

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