Cancer Control science

Atlanta, GA, United States

Cancer Control science

Atlanta, GA, United States
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Fedewa S.A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Fedewa S.A.,Emory University | Goodman M.,Emory University | Flanders W.D.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | And 8 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: The aim of the cost-sharing provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was to reduce financial barriers for preventive services, including screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC) among privately and Medicare-insured individuals. Whether the provision has affected CRC and BC screening prevalence is unknown. The current study investigated whether CRC and BC screening prevalence among privately and Medicare-insured adults by socioeconomic status (SES) changed before and after the ACA. METHODS: Data obtained from the National Health Interview Survey pertaining to privately and Medicare-insured adults from 2008 (before the ACA) and 2013 (after the ACA) were used. There were 15,786 adults aged 50 to 75 years in the CRC screening analysis and 14,530 women aged ≥40 years in the BC screening analysis. Changes in guideline-recommended screening between 2008 and 2013 by SES were expressed as the prevalence difference (PD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) adjusted for demographics, insurance, income, education, body mass index, and having a usual provider. RESULTS: Overall, CRC screening prevalence increased from 57.3% to 61.2% between 2008 and 2013 (P<.001). Adjusted CRC screening prevalence during the corresponding period increased in low-income (PD, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 10.2), least-educated (PD, 7.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 13.5), and Medicare-insured (PD, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.7 to 10.7) individuals, but not in high-income, most-educated, and privately insured respondents. BC screening remained unchanged overall (70.5% in 2008 vs 70.2% in 2013) and in the low SES groups. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in CRC screening prevalence between 2008 and 2013 were confined to respondents with low SES. These findings may in part reflect the ACA's removal of financial barriers. © 2015 American Cancer Society.


Kim Y.,Behavioral Research, Inc. | Kim Y.,University of Miami | Pike J.,Health Promotion | Adams H.,Health Promotion | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: Recent national surveys have documented that the majority of adults in the United States do not meet the recommended levels of healthy lifestyle-related behaviors. The Nutrition and Physical Activity (NuPA) study was designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and weight management for a working population. Method: Data were collected nationwide, USA, from 2005 to 2007 and analyzed in 2008. A total of 2470 employed participants were randomized into the self-help (SH: n=1191) or self-help plus telephone counseling (SH + C: n=1279) group. The SH. +. C group received nine structured telephone counseling sessions in addition to the print materials. Results: A series of hierarchical regression analyses for each of the health behavior outcomes in the present-at-follow-up subsample (n=1098-1148) revealed that the SH. +. C was effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Among the overweight and obese participants, weight loss was significant in both the SH and SH. +. C groups. Conclusion: Using a theory-based behavioral change counseling technique and targeting multiple health behaviors among employed individuals, our findings demonstrate that the addition of telephone counseling to mailed self-help materials is effective in promoting healthy diet and weight management. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.


Cooper D.L.,Behavioral Research, Inc. | Powe B.D.,Cancer Control science | Smith T.,Behavioral Research, Inc.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Cancer is the second most common condition among people over 50, behind only dementia, associated with caregiving. As treatments improve, the number of cancer caregivers will increase. However, there is limited research about African-American cancer caregivers (AACCs). Purpose: The purpose of this mixed methods study is to describe (1) the types of social support provided by and (2) the levels of strain reported by AACCs. Methods: Cancer patients from a regional safety net hospital nominated family caregivers who helped them after their cancer diagnosis. Consented caregivers were interviewed in the waiting room while the patient received treatment or later by phone using the Modified Caregiver Strain Index (MCSI), five structured interview questions, and demographic questions - 20 min. Responses to the interview questions were processed using Miles and Huberman's content analysis guide. Descriptive statistics for demographics and the MCSI were performed using SPSS. Results: Of the 45 AACCs, 64 % had medical conditions. Caregivers reported patients' pain (31 %), stress (9 %), and nausea (7 %) as the most common symptoms. AACCs most commonly provided instrumental (67 %) or emotional (42 %) support; spiritual (20 %) and informational (20 %) support were less common. Conclusion: Emphasis is needed in providing care assistance information to the AACCs to ensure effective support for their loved ones. This study highlights areas of support where assistance can be useful among AACCs. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Fedewa S.A.,American Cancer Society | Fedewa S.A.,Emory University | De Moor J.S.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Ward E.M.,American Cancer Society | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2016

Introduction In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) no longer recommended routine mammography for women aged 40-49 and ≥75 years (younger and older women, respectively). Whether mammography usage and physician recommendation among younger and older women changed in response to these recommendations is unclear. Methods Cross-sectional data from women aged ≥40 years in the 2008 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys were used (n=4,942 younger and 3,047 older women) and were analyzed in 2015. Changes between 2008 and 2013 in self-reports about having undergone mammography in the past 2 years and physician recommendation for mammography were expressed as adjusted prevalence difference (PD) and 95% CI. Results Overall, adjusted prevalence of mammography among younger women was similar in 2008 (62.2%) and 2013 (58.5%) (p=0.05), but significantly declined in high-income (PD=-6.1%, 95% CI=-11.2, -1.0); non-Hispanic white (PD=-5.5%, 95% CI=-10.2, -0.8); and privately insured (PD=-5.7%, 95% CI=-9.8, -1.6) younger women. For older women, there was no change in adjusted mammography prevalence overall (2008, 56.2%; 2013, 54.2%; p=0.473) or by SES. Physician mammography recommendation declined in younger (PD=-5.0%, 95% CI=-8.7, -1.3) and older (PD=-5.8%, 95% CI=-10.5, -1.1) women. Conclusions Four years after publication of USPSTF mammography recommendations, mammography prevalence for younger and older women did not significantly decrease except for higher-SES younger women. The significant decrease in physician recommendation of mammography in younger and older women may reflect a change in practice patterns by some physicians in response to USPSTF recommendations. © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.


Fedewa S.A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Fedewa S.A.,Emory University | Sauer A.G.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Siegel R.L.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2016

Asian Americans (AA) are less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), with a widening disparity for some AA subgroups in the early 2000s. Whether these patterns have continued in more recent years is unknown. We examined temporal trends in colorectal cancer screening among AA overall compared with NHWs and by AA subgroup (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, Vietnamese) using data from the 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys. Unadjusted (PR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios for colorectal cancer screening, accounting for sociodemographic, health care, and acculturation factors, were calculated for respondents ages 50 to 75 years (NHW n = 60,125; AA n = 6,630). Between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening prevalence increased from 43.3% to 64.6% in AA (P ≤ 0.001) and from 58.1% to 71.4% in NHW (P ≤ 0.001). Unadjusted colorectal cancer screening was significantly lower among AA compared with NHW in 2003 [PR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.82], 2005 (PR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.84), 2007 (PR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), and 2009 (PR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), though disparities narrowed over time. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in colorectal cancer screening between the two groups, except in 2003. In subgroup analyses, between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening significantly increased by 22% in Japanese, 56% in Chinese, 47% in Filipino, and 94% in Koreans. In our study of California residents, colorectal cancer screening disparities between AA and NHW narrowed, but were not eliminated and screening prevalence among AA remains below nationwide goals, including the Healthy People 2020 goal of increasing colorectal cancer screening prevalence to 70.5%. © 2016 American Association for Cancer Research.


Stout N.L.,Breast Care Center | Andrews K.,Cancer Control Science | Binkley J.M.,TurningPoint | Schmitz K.H.,University of Pennsylvania | Smith R.A.,Cancer Control Science
Cancer | Year: 2012

The prospective surveillance model proposes a paradigm shift in the delivery of care for patients with breast cancer. The model is based on clinical research and clinical practice experience that was reviewed and discussed at a multidisciplinary meeting. The model identifies critical physical sequelae of treatment as well as timeframes for identification of and surveillance for these issues. Although the model of ongoing assessment for physical impairment and early rehabilitative intervention creates a framework for care, broad support and active dissemination among a variety of stakeholders will be required to transform patient care. Translating research findings to transform practice often occurs on a protracted timeline. The authors sought participation from a variety of stakeholder representatives throughout the process of creating this model in an effort to ensure that it reflects the realities of the patient experience and care delivery, to incorporate their input regarding the construct and viability of the model, and to potentiate effective and efficient strategies for implementation. This article summarizes comments from stakeholder representatives concerning the prospective surveillance model for rehabilitation for women treated for breast cancer. Concerns addressed include the scope of impairments included in the model, the potential creation of barriers to exercise and participation in community exercise programs, and cost and feasibility issues. Stakeholder disseminations strategies are also presented. Overall, there is recognition by the stakeholder group that this model calls attention to important unmet needs and defines a crucial opportunity to improve care for breast cancer survivors. © 2012 American Cancer Society.


Fedewa S.A.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Fedewa S.A.,Emory University | Ma J.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | Sauer A.G.,Surveillance and Health Services Research | And 7 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND A recent study estimates that 277,000 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and 203,000 CRC deaths will be averted between 2013 and 2030 if the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable goal of increasing CRC screening prevalence to 80% by 2018 is reached. However, the number of individuals who need to be screened (NNS) to achieve this goal is unknown. In this communication, the authors estimate the NNS to achieve 80% by 2018 nationwide and by state. METHODS The authors estimated the NNS by subtracting adults aged 50 to 75 years who would need to be screened to achieve an 80% CRC screening prevalence from the number who are currently guideline-compliant from population estimates for this age group. The 2013 National Health Interview Survey and the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate CRC screening prevalence and data from the US Census Bureau were used to estimate population projections. The NNS were age-standardized and sex-standardized. RESULTS Nationwide, 24.39 million individuals (95% confidence interval, 24.37-24.41 million) aged 50 to 75 years will need to be screened to achieve 80% by 2018. By state, the NNS ranged from 45,400 in Vermont to 2.72 million in California. The majority of individuals who need to be screened are aged 50 to 64 years and the largest subgroup is privately insured. CONCLUSIONS The authors estimated that at least 24.4 million additional individuals in the United States will need to be screened to achieve the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable goal of increasing CRC screening prevalence to 80% by 2018. To reach this goal, improving facilitators of CRC screening, including physician recommendation and patient awareness, is needed. © 2015 American Cancer Society.


PubMed | Cancer Control science, National Cancer Institute, Emory University and American Cancer Society
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of preventive medicine | Year: 2016

In 2009, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) no longer recommended routine mammography for women aged 40-49 and 75 years (younger and older women, respectively). Whether mammography usage and physician recommendation among younger and older women changed in response to these recommendations is unclear.Cross-sectional data from women aged 40 years in the 2008 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys were used (n=4,942 younger and 3,047 older women) and were analyzed in 2015. Changes between 2008 and 2013 in self-reports about having undergone mammography in the past 2 years and physician recommendation for mammography were expressed as adjusted prevalence difference (PD) and 95% CI.Overall, adjusted prevalence of mammography among younger women was similar in 2008 (62.2%) and 2013 (58.5%) (p=0.05), but significantly declined in high-income (PD=-6.1%, 95% CI=-11.2, -1.0); non-Hispanic white (PD=-5.5%, 95% CI=-10.2, -0.8); and privately insured (PD=-5.7%, 95% CI=-9.8, -1.6) younger women. For older women, there was no change in adjusted mammography prevalence overall (2008, 56.2%; 2013, 54.2%; p=0.473) or by SES. Physician mammography recommendation declined in younger (PD=-5.0%, 95% CI=-8.7, -1.3) and older (PD=-5.8%, 95% CI=-10.5, -1.1) women.Four years after publication of USPSTF mammography recommendations, mammography prevalence for younger and older women did not significantly decrease except for higher-SES younger women. The significant decrease in physician recommendation of mammography in younger and older women may reflect a change in practice patterns by some physicians in response to USPSTF recommendations.


PubMed | Surveillance and Health Services Research, Office of the Chief Medical Officer and Cancer Control Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer | Year: 2015

A recent study estimates that 277,000 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and 203,000 CRC deaths will be averted between 2013 and 2030 if the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable goal of increasing CRC screening prevalence to 80% by 2018 is reached. However, the number of individuals who need to be screened (NNS) to achieve this goal is unknown. In this communication, the authors estimate the NNS to achieve 80% by 2018 nationwide and by state.The authors estimated the NNS by subtracting adults aged 50 to 75 years who would need to be screened to achieve an 80% CRC screening prevalence from the number who are currently guideline-compliant from population estimates for this age group. The 2013 National Health Interview Survey and the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate CRC screening prevalence and data from the US Census Bureau were used to estimate population projections. The NNS were age-standardized and sex-standardized.Nationwide, 24.39 million individuals (95% confidence interval, 24.37-24.41 million) aged 50 to 75 years will need to be screened to achieve 80% by 2018. By state, the NNS ranged from 45,400 in Vermont to 2.72 million in California. The majority of individuals who need to be screened are aged 50 to 64 years and the largest subgroup is privately insured.The authors estimated that at least 24.4 million additional individuals in the United States will need to be screened to achieve the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable goal of increasing CRC screening prevalence to 80% by 2018. To reach this goal, improving facilitators of CRC screening, including physician recommendation and patient awareness, is needed.


PubMed | Surveillance and Health Services Research, University of Pennsylvania, Emory University and Cancer Control Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer | Year: 2015

The aim of the cost-sharing provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was to reduce financial barriers for preventive services, including screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC) among privately and Medicare-insured individuals. Whether the provision has affected CRC and BC screening prevalence is unknown. The current study investigated whether CRC and BC screening prevalence among privately and Medicare-insured adults by socioeconomic status (SES) changed before and after the ACA.Data obtained from the National Health Interview Survey pertaining to privately and Medicare-insured adults from 2008 (before the ACA) and 2013 (after the ACA) were used. There were 15,786 adults aged 50 to 75 years in the CRC screening analysis and 14,530 women aged 40 years in the BC screening analysis. Changes in guideline-recommended screening between 2008 and 2013 by SES were expressed as the prevalence difference (PD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) adjusted for demographics, insurance, income, education, body mass index, and having a usual provider.Overall, CRC screening prevalence increased from 57.3% to 61.2% between 2008 and 2013 (P<.001). Adjusted CRC screening prevalence during the corresponding period increased in low-income (PD, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 10.2), least-educated (PD, 7.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 13.5), and Medicare-insured (PD, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.7 to 10.7) individuals, but not in high-income, most-educated, and privately insured respondents. BC screening remained unchanged overall (70.5% in 2008 vs 70.2% in 2013) and in the low SES groups.Increases in CRC screening prevalence between 2008 and 2013 were confined to respondents with low SES. These findings may in part reflect the ACAs removal of financial barriers.

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