Cancer Control Research Institute

Victoria, Australia

Cancer Control Research Institute

Victoria, Australia
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Livingston P.M.,Deakin University | White V.M.,Cancer Control Research Institute | Hayman J.,Cancer Control Research Institute | Maunsell E.,Laval University | And 2 more authors.
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2010

Objective: To examine the psychological impact of a referral and telephone intervention, involving information and support, among men with colorectal cancer (CRC) and prostate cancer. Methods: 571 newly diagnosed male CRC (N=182) and prostate (N=389) cancer patients were block-randomised into three arms. In the two intervention arms, the specialist actively referred men to a Cancer Helpline. In Active Referral - 4 outcalls, men received calls from the Helpline within 1 week of diagnosis, and at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post-diagnosis. In Active Referral - 1 outcall, men received one call within 1 week of diagnosis. In the control arm, Passive Referral, patients were referred to the Helpline, with contact at their initiative. Participants completed scales measuring cancer-specific distress, anxiety and depression at study entry, then 4, 7 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Random effects regression models compared rates of change in these outcomes between study arms. Results: At the first outcall, over 85% of participants in both intervention arms discussed treatment management and psychological/emotional issues. Among the Active Referral - 4 outcalls arm, over 80% of participants discussed psychological/emotional issues at each call. Mean changes over time in cancer-specific distress, anxiety and depression were similar between study arms. Conclusion: Although men were willing to discuss psychosocial issues via the telephone, we found no psychological impact. Further research is required to determine whether the intervention is more effective for patients who do not have psychosocial support or have unmet information needs. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Evans S.M.,Monash University | Millar J.L.,Alfred Hospital | Davis I.D.,Monash University | Murphy D.G.,Australian Prostate Cancer Research Center | And 10 more authors.
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2013

Objective: To describe patterns of care for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Victoria, Australia, between 2008 and 2011. Design, setting and patients: Men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer at 11 public and six private hospitals in Victoria from August 2008 to February 2011, and for whom prostate cancer notifications were received by the Prostate Cancer Registry. Main outcome measures: Characteristics of men diagnosed with prostate cancer; details of treatment provided within 12 months of diagnosis, according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk categories; and characteristics of men who did not receive active treatment within 12 months of diagnosis. Results: Treatment details were collected for 98.1% of men who were assessed as eligible to participate in the study (2724/2776) and were confirmed by telephone 12 months after diagnosis for 74.4% of them (2027/2724). Most patients (2531/2724 [92.9%]) were diagnosed with clinically localised disease, of whom 1201 (47.5%) were at intermediate risk of disease progression. Within 12 months of diagnosis, 299 of the 736 patients (40.6%) who had been diagnosed as having disease that was at low risk of progression had received no active treatment, and 72 of 594 patients (12.1%) who had been diagnosed as having disease that was at high risk of progression had received no active treatment. Of those diagnosed as having intermediate risk of disease progression, 54.5% (655/1201) had undergone radical prostatectomy. Those who received no active treatment were more likely than those who received active treatment to be older (odds ratio [95% CI], 2.96 [2.01-4.38], 10.94 [6.96-17.21] and 32.76 [15.84- 67.89], respectively, for age 65-74 years, 75-84 years and ≥85 years, compared with < 55 years), to have less advanced disease (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.20 [0.16-0.26], 0.09 [0.06-0.12] and 0.05 [0.02-0.90], respectively, for intermediate, high and very high-risk [locally advanced] or metastatic disease, compared with lowrisk disease) and to have had their prostate cancer notified by a private hospital (odds ratio [95% CI], 1.35 [1.10-1.66], compared with public hospital). Conclusion: Our data reveal a considerable "stage migration" towards earlier diagnosis of prostate cancer in Victoria and a large increase in the use of radical prostatectomy among men with clinically localised disease.


Hitchman S.C.,University of Waterloo | Fong G.T.,University of Waterloo | Fong G.T.,Ontario Cancer Institute | Borland R.,Cancer Control Research Institute | Hyland A.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2010

Objective: This study examines the proportion and characteristics of smokers who smoke in cars with nonsmokers across four countries and the potentially modifiable correlates of this behavior. Methods: Respondents included a total of 6,786 current adult smokers from Wave 6 (September 2007-February 2008) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a random digit-dial telephone survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Results: Reports of smoking in cars with nonsmokers ranged from a low of 29% in Australia and the United Kingdom, to 34% in Canada, and to a high of 44% in the United States. Daily smokers who were from the United States, male, and younger were the most likely to smoke in cars with nonsmokers. Several potentially modifiable factors were also found to be related to this behavior, including smoke-free homes and beliefs about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure to nonsmokers. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of smokers continue to smoke in cars with nonsmokers across the four countries, particularly in the United States. Public health campaigns should educate smokers about the hazards of cigarette smoke exposure and promote the need for smoke-free cars. These findings provide a foundation of evidence relevant for jurisdictions that are considering banning smoking in cars. © The Author 2010.


Fathelrahman A.I.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Fathelrahman A.I.,Ministry of Health Khartoum State | Omar M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Awang R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2010

The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers' knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.


Muhlbradt E.,Columbia University | Ma J.,Harvard University | Severi G.,Cancer Control Research Institute | Severi G.,University of Melbourne | And 9 more authors.
Genes and Cancer | Year: 2014

NKX3.1 is a tumor suppressor down-regulated in early prostate cancers. A SNP (rs2228013), which represents a polymorphic NKX3.1(C154T) coding for a variant protein NKX3.1(R52C), is present in 10% of the population and is related to prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer. We investigated rs2228013 in prostate cancer risk for 937 prostate cancer cases and 1,086 age-matched controls from a nested case-control study within the prospective Physicians' Health Study (PHS) and among 798 cases and 527 controls retrospectively collected in the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Study of the Victoria Cancer Council (RFPCS). We also investigated the interaction between serum IGF-I levels and NKX3.1 genotype in the populations from PHS and RFPCS. In the PHS, we found no overall association between the variant T allele in rs2228013 in NKX3.1 and prostate cancer risk (odd ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.92-1.71). A subgroup analysis for cases diagnosed before age 70 showed an increased risk (relative risk = 1.55; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.31) of overall prostate cancer. In this age-group, the risk of metastatic cancer at diagnosis or of fatal cancer was even higher in carriers of the T allele (relative risk = 2.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.00-4.63). These associations were not replicated in the RFPCS. Serum IGF-I levels were found to be a risk factor for prostate cancer in both study populations. The wild type NKX3.1 protein can induce IGFBP-3 expression in vitro. We report that variant NKX3.1 cannot induce IGFBP-3 expression, but the NKX3.1 genotype does not modify the association between serum IGF-I levels and prostate cancer risk. © The Author(s) 2013.


Segan C.J.,Cancer Control Research Institute | Segan C.J.,University of Melbourne | Borland R.,Cancer Control Research Institute
Health Education Research | Year: 2011

This randomized controlled trial tested whether extended callback counselling that proactively engaged ex-smokers with the task of embracing a smoke-free lifestyle (four to six calls delivered 1-3 months after quitting, i.e. when craving levels and perceived need for help had declined) could reduce relapse compared with a revised version of Quitline's standard service (four calls in the first month after quitting which focused primarily on the task of helping ex-smokers deal with daily cravings and now also systematically alerted clients to the upcoming task of adapting to life as a non-smoker). One thousand and four hundred and forty-four smokers or recent ex-smokers were randomized at recruitment: 734 usual care and 710 intervention. An inclusion criterion of subsequently quitting for at least 1 week gave 346 usual care and 352 intervention participants. Seventy-four per cent of intervention participants accepted extra calls and received 4.3 on average but only 1.7 more post-quitting calls than usual care group. No significant differences were found between extended contact and usual care groups on continuous abstinence (both 27% at 12 months) or any other cessation outcome. The tasks of quitting framework introduced in preparation for the trial might have contributed to service improvement in relapse prevention (10% increased quit rate compared with an earlier trial). However, the extra sessions did not provide any benefit. © The Author 2010.


PubMed | Cancer Control Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health education research | Year: 2011

This randomized controlled trial tested whether extended callback counselling that proactively engaged ex-smokers with the task of embracing a smoke-free lifestyle (four to six calls delivered 1-3 months after quitting, i.e. when craving levels and perceived need for help had declined) could reduce relapse compared with a revised version of Quitlines standard service (four calls in the first month after quitting which focused primarily on the task of helping ex-smokers deal with daily cravings and now also systematically alerted clients to the upcoming task of adapting to life as a non-smoker). One thousand and four hundred and forty-four smokers or recent ex-smokers were randomized at recruitment: 734 usual care and 710 intervention. An inclusion criterion of subsequently quitting for at least 1 week gave 346 usual care and 352 intervention participants. Seventy-four per cent of intervention participants accepted extra calls and received 4.3 on average but only 1.7 more post-quitting calls than usual care group. No significant differences were found between extended contact and usual care groups on continuous abstinence (both 27% at 12 months) or any other cessation outcome. The tasks of quitting framework introduced in preparation for the trial might have contributed to service improvement in relapse prevention (10% increased quit rate compared with an earlier trial). However, the extra sessions did not provide any benefit.

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