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Stanford, United States

Hou Z.,Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute | Desmoulin S.K.,Cancer Biology Graduate Program | Etnyre E.,Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute | Olive M.,Microscopy | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT; SLC46A1) is a proton-folate symporter that is abundantly expressed in solid tumors and normal tissues, such as duodenum. The acidic pH optimum for PCFT is relevant to intestinal absorption of folates and could afford a means of selectively targeting tumors with novel cytotoxic antifolates. PCFT is a member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. Because major facilitator superfamily members exist as homo-oligomers, we tested this for PCFT because such structures could be significant to PCFT mechanism and regulation. By transiently expressing PCFT in reduced folate carrier- and PCFT-null HeLa (R1-11) cells and chemical cross-linking with 1,1-methanediyl bismethanethiosulfonate and Western blotting, PCFT species with molecular masses approximating those of the PCFT dimer and higher order oligomers were detected. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis identified PCFT dimer, trimer, and tetramer forms. PCFT monomers with hemagglutinin and His10 epitope tags were co-expressed in R1-11 cells, solubilized, and bound to nickel affinity columns, establishing their physical associations. Co-expressing YPet and ECFP*-tagged PCFT monomers enabled transport and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in plasma membranes of R1-11 cells. Combined wild-type (WT) and inactive mutant P425R PCFTs were targeted to the cell surface by surface biotinylation/Western blots and confocal microscopy and functionally exhibited a "dominant-positive"phenotype, implying positive cooperativity between PCFT monomers and functional rescue of mutant by WT PCFT. Our results demonstrate the existence of PCFT homo-oligomers and imply their functional and regulatory impact. Better understanding of these higher order PCFT structures may lead to therapeutic applications related to folate uptake in hereditary folate malabsorption, and delivery of PCFT-targeted chemotherapy drugs for cancer. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Derouen M.C.,Cancer Biology Graduate Program | Derouen M.C.,Stanford University | Zhen H.,Stanford University | Tan S.H.,Cancer Biology Graduate Program | And 4 more authors.
BMC Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

Background. Initiation of the hair follicle placode and its subsequent growth, maturation and cycling in post-natal skin requires signaling interactions between epithelial cells and adjacent dermal cells and involves Shh signaling via the primary cilium. Previous reports have implicated laminins in hair follicle epithelial invagination. Results. Here we use a human BCC model system and mouse mutants to re-evaluate the role of laminin-511 in epithelial invagination in the skin. Blocking laminin 511 and 332 in BCCs maintains primary cilia and Shh signalling, but prevents invagination. Similarly, in laminin-511 and dermal beta-1 integrin mutants, dermal papilla development and primary cilia formation are normal. Dermal beta-1 integrin mutants have normal hair follicle development. Conclusions. Our data provides support for a primary role of laminin-511 promoting hair follicle epithelial downgrowth without affecting dermal primary cilia and Shh target gene induction. © 2010 DeRouen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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