Cancer and Environment Unit

Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

Cancer and Environment Unit

Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France
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Zamora-Ros R.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Zamora-Ros R.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Touillaud M.,Cancer and Environment Unit | Rothwell J.A.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Much experimental evidence supports a protective role of dietary polyphenols against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. However, results from observational epidemiologic studies are still limited and are often inconsistent. This is largely explained by the difficulties encountered in the estimation of exposure to the polyphenol metabolome, which is composed of ∼500 polyphenols distributed across a wide variety of foods and characterized by diverse biological properties. Exposure to the polyphenol metabolome in epidemiologic studies can be assessed by the use of detailed dietary questionnaires or the measurement of biomarkers of polyphenol intake. The questionnaire approach has been greatly facilitated by the use of new databases on polyphenol composition but is limited by bias as a result of self-reporting. The use of polyphenol biomarkers holds much promise for objective estimation of polyphenol exposure in future metabolome-wide association studies. These approaches are reviewed and their advantages and limitations discussed by using examples of epidemiologic studies on polyphenols and cancer. The current improvement in these techniques, along with greater emphasis on the intake of individual polyphenols rather than polyphenols considered collectively, will help unravel the role of these major food bioactive constituents in disease prevention. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Foucaut A.-M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Foucaut A.-M.,Cancer and Environment Unit | Berthouze S.E.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Touillaud M.,Cancer and Environment Unit | And 9 more authors.
Cancer Nursing | Year: 2015

Background: In breast cancer patients, a lack of physical activity (PA) is 1 causative factor of weight gain during adjuvant treatment. It may increase the risk of treatment adverse effects, comorbidities, and deleterious long-term outcomes. Objective: We aimed to describe the evolution of PA level and sedentary behavior in breast cancer patients between diagnosis and adjuvant chemotherapy onset following surgery and identify predictive factors associated with these changes early after breast cancer diagnosis. Methods: Baseline data of 60 patients enrolled in a pilot randomized controlled trial of PA are presented. PA levels were estimated at adjuvant chemotherapy onset after surgery and retrospectively for the period at diagnosis. Height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at chemotherapy onset. Linear regression analysis evaluated factors associated with relative changes of PA level and sedentary behavior. Results: Moderate PA decreased and sedentary behavior increased between diagnosis and chemotherapy onset. A grade III breast cancer was associated with a greater decrease in PA level. Conversely, keeping a professional occupation and adherence to nutritional guidelines were associated with maintained PA level. The majority (88%) of patients had excessive adiposity at chemotherapy onset. Conclusions: There was a significant deterioration of PA level between diagnosis and chemotherapy onset, and deleterious adiposity was present in most patients. Implications for Practice: This study further emphasizes the need to motivate breast cancer patients toward engaging in a healthy lifestyle early after diagnosis and adhering to PA programs, which should be included in their clinical management. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Dossus L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dossus L.,University Paris - Sud | Boutron-Ruault M.-C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Boutron-Ruault M.-C.,University Paris - Sud | And 58 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative life-time measures of passive smoking suggest an association between passive smoking dose and breast cancer risk. We conducted a study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to examine the association between passive and active smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer and possible effect modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Among the 322,988 women eligible for the study, 9,822 developed breast cancer (183,608 women with passive smoking information including 6,264 cases). When compared to women who never smoked and were not being exposed to passive smoking at home or work at the time of study registration, current, former and currently exposed passive smokers were at increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.16 [1.05-1.28], 1.14 [1.04-1.25] and 1.10 [1.01-1.20], respectively). Analyses exploring associations in different periods of life showed the most important increase in risk with pack-years from menarche to FFTP (1.73 [1.29-2.32] for every increase of 20 pack-years) while pack-years smoked after menopause were associated with a significant decrease in breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82 for every increase of 20 pack-years). Our results provide an important replication, in the largest cohort to date, that smoking (passively or actively) increases breast cancer risk and that smoking between menarche and FFTP is particularly deleterious. What's new? The EPIC study is the largest cohort analysis on smoking and breast cancer to date. In this analysis of data from that study, the authors have confirmed that both active and passive exposure to cigarette smoke increases breast cancer risk. These results emphasize that it's important to distinguish between passive exposure and no exposure when analyzing the relationship between smoking and breast cancer. The authors also confirm that the most potent window of exposure for smoking and breast cancer risk is between menarche and first full term pregnancy. © 2013 UICC.

Dossus L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dossus L.,University Paris - Sud | Kvaskoff M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Kvaskoff M.,University Paris - Sud | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Background Age at menarche is an important determinant of hormonal-related neoplasia and other chronic diseases. Spatial and temporal variations in age at menarche have been observed in industrialised countries and several environmental factors were reported to have an influence. Method We examined geographical variations in self-reported age at menarche and explored the effects of both latitude and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dose on the onset of menarche in 88 278 women from the French E3N cohort (aged 40-65 years at inclusion). Results The mean age at menarche was 12.8 years. After adjustment for potential confounders (birth cohort, prematurity, birth weight and length, father's income index, body silhouette in childhood, food deprivation during World War II, population of birthplace, number of siblings, breastfeeding exposure and indoor exposure to passive smoking during childhood), latitude and UVR dose (annual or spring/summer) in county of birth were significantly associated with ageat menarche (Ptrend<0.0001). Women born at lower latitudes or in regions with higher annual or spring/summer UVR dose had a 3- to 4-month earlier menarche than women born at higher latitudes or in regions with lower UVR. On a continuous scale, a 1° increment in latitude resulted in a 0.04-year older age at menarche [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.05], whereas a 1-kJ/m2 increment in annual UVR dose resulted in a 0.42-year younger age at menarche (95% CI: -0.55, -0.29). Conclusion These data further suggest that light exposure in childhood may influence sexual maturation in women. © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

Dossus L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dossus L.,University Paris - Sud | Kvaskoff M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Kvaskoff M.,University Paris - Sud | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Purpose: Early menarche has been associated with a greater risk of several major chronic diseases. Although largely genetically determined, age at menarche also has been related to environmental and lifestyle factors. Methods: Using linear regression models, we explored simultaneously several pre- and postnatal factors as potential determinants of age at menarche and time to menstrual cycle regularity in 96,493 women participating, since 1990, in the French E3N prospective cohort. Results: Younger age at recruitment, greater father's income index, urban birth place, greater birth length, and larger body silhouette during childhood were associated with an earlier age at menarche (from -1.3 to -4.6 months, Ptrend < .0001) whereas greater family size, food deprivation during childhood, and greater birth weight resulted in a delayed menarche (from +1.5 months to +5.3 months, Ptrend < .0001). Father's income index, urban birth place, and prematurity predicted a shorter time to menstrual cycle regularity (from -1.1 to -1.9 months, Ptrend < .04), whereas birth cohort, larger body silhouette at menarche, and childhood exposure to passive smoking were associated with a longer time to menstrual cycle regularity (from +1.1 months to +8.6 months, Ptrend < .006). Conclusions: Age at menarche and menstrual cycle regularity are significantly influenced by several individual, environmental and lifestyle factors. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

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