Time filter

Source Type

Atlanta, GA, United States

Christiansen H.L.,Cancer and Blood Disorders Center | Bingen K.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Hoag J.A.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Karst J.S.,Medical College of Wisconsin | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2015

Experiences with peers constitute an important aspect of socialization, and children and adolescents with cancer may experience reduced social interaction due to treatment. A literature review was conducted to investigate the evidence to support a standard of care evaluating these experiences. Sixty-four articles were reviewed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Moderate quality of evidence suggest that social interaction can be beneficial to increase knowledge, decrease isolation, and improve adjustment and constitute an important, unmet need. The evidence supports a strong recommendation for youth with cancer to be provided opportunities for social interaction following a careful assessment of their unique characteristics and preferences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lown E.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Phillips F.,University of Texas at Austin | Schwartz L.A.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | Rosenberg A.R.,Cancer and Blood Disorders Center | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2015

Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) have a high risk of medical late effects following cancer therapy. Psychosocial late effects are less often recognized. Many CCS do not receive long-term follow-up (LTFU) care, and those who do are rarely screened for psychosocial late effects. An interdisciplinary team conducted a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies to assess social, educational, vocational, psychological, and behavioral outcomes along with factors related to receipt of LTFU care. We propose that psychosocial screening be considered a standard of care in long-term follow-up care and that education be provided to promote the use LTFU care starting early in the treatment trajectory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Thompson A.L.,Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders | Christiansen H.L.,Cancer and Blood Disorders Center | Elam M.,Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute | Hoag J.,Medical College of Wisconsin | And 5 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2015

Clinicians agree that return to school after diagnosis promotes the positive adjustment of children and adolescents with cancer; however, the school reentry process can present challenges. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on school reentry support for youth with cancer. Seventeen publications were identified. School reentry services were well-received by families and educators; increased teacher and peer knowledge about childhood cancer; influenced peer and educator attitudes toward the patient; and improved communication and collaboration between patients/families, school, and the healthcare team. Evidence supports a strong recommendation for school reentry support for youth with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Dampier C.,Emory University | Dampier C.,Cancer and Blood Disorders Center
Orphan Drugs: Research and Reviews | Year: 2015

While an orphan disease in the USA, sickle cell disease (SCD), a group of genetic disorders of hemoglobin structure and function, is a major public health problem in much of the rest of the world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. The pathophysiology of SCD stems from the formation of sickle hemoglobin polymers that deform the erythrocyte into a characteristic sickle shape, the rapidity of which is regulated by its intracellular hemoglobin concentration. Subsequent vaso-occlusion is dependent on adhesion of sickled erythrocytes, and perhaps other cellular elements, including leucocytes and platelets, to abnormal vascular endothelium using a number of receptor–ligand pairs. This propensity for vaso-occlusion may be enhanced by altered vascular tone from excessive amounts of vaso-constrictive factors or diminished amounts of vasodilatory factors. Acute pain is the hallmark symptom caused by sickle polymer formation and subsequent vaso-occlusion, and is represented in the endpoints of most previous and current clinical trial designs. Numerous failures of prior investigational agents have frustrated clinicians and patients alike. Hydroxyurea is currently the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for SCD and reduces the frequency of vaso-occlusive complications in many individuals. A considerable therapeutic need remains as hydroxyurea usage is currently not approved for all types of SCD, is not always clinically effective, and requires frequent monitoring. Recent improvements in our understanding of SCD pathophysiology have generated many new therapeutic targets and associated investigational agents. For example, a number of more specific fetal hemoglobin inducers and several therapies to reduce sickle polymer formation are being tested in preclinical and early phase clinical trials. Several agents that target receptor–ligand interactions which mediate cellular adhesion to vascular endothelium have shown considerable promise and are entering Phase III trials, but present some continuing challenges in clinical trial design and conduct. Gene therapy trials are poised to start and offer the potential for curative therapy. © 2015 Dampier.

News Article
Site: news.yahoo.com

A safe sleeping environment is crucial for preventing sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), but it is not the only factor that determines the risk of the syndrome in babies, according to a new study. The rates of SIDS in the United States have decreased dramatically since 1992, when the American Academy of Pediatrics first recommended placing babies on their backs to sleep, instead of on their tummies, and since the importance of reducing suffocation hazards, such as soft bedding in cribs, has been recognized, the researchers said. But in some cases, parents can do everything right when putting a baby to bed, and babies still die from SIDS. "I work with a lot of parents whose children have died from SIDS, and the general climate is one where, because of the success of controlling the sleep environment, the parents often feel that they are responsible for the deaths of their children," said study author Dr. Richard Goldstein, of Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. "And while it is certainly the case that it is important to put your child in the safest environment possible, and that approach has had a real impact on mortality, the overall idea — the basic theory of what happens with SIDS — is a little more complicated than that." According to this basic theory outlined in the new study, there are three major elements that contribute to infants' overall risk of SIDS. First, some infants may have an intrinsic predisposition to SIDS, the researchers said. Second, infants who die of SIDS tend to be in a critical period of development, with those younger than six months being at the greatest risk of SIDS. The third element that contributes to the overall risk of SIDS in infants is their sleeping environment, including the position in which they sleep and the type of bedding in the crib. [7 Baby Myths Debunked] The intrinsic risk is thought to involve genetic, developmental and environmental factors, the researchers said. For example, research has shown that boys and preterm babies are more susceptible to SIDS. Babies whose mothers smoked or drank alcohol during pregnancy have also been shown to have an increased risk of SIDS, the researchers said. And babies that have been breast-fed seem to be less susceptible to SIDS, according to the study, published today (Dec. 2) in the journal Pediatrics. When the researchers looked at rates of SIDS between 1983 and 2012, they found that, between 1992 and 1996 — right around the time when the AAP began recommending against placing babies to sleep in chest-down positions — a sharp, 38-percent decrease in SIDS occurred in the United States. The efforts to make infants' sleeping environments safer were critical in making this reduction. However, other factors that might affect a child's intrinsic risk of SIDS were also involved in making this reduction, the researchers said. For example, a decrease in rates of smoking during pregnancy, an increased rate of breast-feeding and increased access to prenatal care all likely helped, and these factors will remain significant in continuing to lower SIDS rates, the researchers said. The new study shows that "If we are to further impact infant mortality rates and eliminate SIDS, focus on the sleep environment will continue to be important, but will likely be insufficient," Dr. Rachel Moon and Dr. Fern Hauck, both at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, who were not involved in the new study, wrote in a related editorial also published in the journal. "Public health efforts will need to also focus on decreasing intrinsic risk through the promotion of smoking cessation, elimination of in utero drug and alcohol exposure, and increasing rates of breast-feeding and access to high-quality prenatal care," Moon and Hauck wrote. Copyright 2015 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Discover hidden collaborations