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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Kohli V.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Schumacher J.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Desai S.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Desai S.,University of Cincinnati | And 4 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2013

Currently, it remains controversial how vascular endothelial progenitor cells (angioblasts) establish their arterial or venous fates. We show using zebrafish that the arterial progenitors of the major axial vessels originate earlier and closer to the midline than the venous progenitors. Both medial and lateral progenitor populations migrate to distinct arterial and venous positions and not into a common precursor vessel as previously suggested. Overexpression of VEGF or Hedgehog (Hh) homologs results in the partially randomized distribution of arterial and venous progenitors within the axial vessels. We further demonstrate that the function of the Etv2 transcription factor is required at earlier stages for arterial development than for venous. Our results argue that the medial angioblasts undergo arterial differentiation because they receive higher concentration of Vegf and Hh morphogens than the lateral angioblasts. We propose a revised model of arterial-venous differentiation that explains how angioblasts choose between an arterial and venous fate. Source

Chen X.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Skutt-Kakaria K.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Skutt-Kakaria K.,Evergreen State College | Davison J.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Genes and Development | Year: 2012

G9a and GLP are conserved protein methyltransferases that play key roles during mammalian development through mono- and dimethylation of histone H3 Lys 9 (H3K9me1/2), modifications associated with transcriptional repression. During embryogenesis, large H3K9me2 chromatin territories arise that have been proposed to reinforce lineage choice by affecting high-order chromatin structure. Here we report that in adult human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), H3K9me2 chromatin territories are absent in primitive cells and are formed de novo during lineage commitment. In committed HSPCs, G9a/GLP activity nucleates H3K9me2 marks at CpG islands and other genomic sites within genic regions, which then spread across most genic regions during differentiation. Immunofluorescence assays revealed the emergence of H3K9me2 nuclear sp eckles in committedHSPCs, consistent with progressive marking. Moreover, gene expression analysis indicated that G9a/GLP activity suppresses promiscuous transcription of lineage-affiliated genes and certain gene clusters, suggestive of regulation of HSPC chromatin structure. Remarkably, HSPCs continuously treated with UNC0638, a G9a/GLP small molecular inhibitor, better retain stem cell-like phenotypes and function during in vitro expansion. These results suggest that G9a/GLP activity promotes progressive H3K9me2 patterning during HSPC lineage specification andthat its inhibition delays HSPC lineage commitment. They also inform clinical manipulation of donor-derived HSPCs. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source

Emery B.,University of Melbourne | Lu Q.R.,Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2015

Central nervous system (CNS) myelination by oligodendrocytes (OLs) is a highly orchestrated process involving well-defined steps from specification of neural stem cells into proliferative OL precursors followed by terminal differentiation and subsequent maturation of these precursors into myelinating OLs. These specification and differentiation processes are mediated by profound global changes in gene expression, which are in turn subject to control by both extracellular signals and regulatory networks intrinsic to the OL lineage. Recently, basic transcriptional mechanisms that control OL differentiation and myelination have begun to be elucidated at the molecular level and on a genome scale. The interplay between transcription factors activated by differentiation-promoting signals and master regulators likely exerts a crucial role in controlling stage-specific progression of the OL lineage. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding the transcription factors and the epigenetic programs including histone methylation, acetylation, chromatin remodeling, micro-RNAs, and noncoding RNAs that regulate development of OLs and myelination. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. All rights reserved. Source

Chow L.M.L.,Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute | Baker S.J.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Oncotarget | Year: 2012

High-grade astrocytoma remains a significant challenge to the clinician and researcher alike. Intense study of the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors has allowed identification of frequent genetic alterations and critical core pathways in this disease. The use of novel mouse genetic tools to study the consequence of specific mutations in brain has led to the development of multiple representative genetically engineered mouse models that provided novel insights into gliomagenesis. As we learn more about the biology of high-grade astrocytoma from the study of these models, we anticipate that our improved understanding will eventually lead to greater success in clinical trials and improved outcome for patients. © Chow et al. Source

Lane A.,Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute
Oncogene | Year: 2014

Genes functioning in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways are among the most frequently activated oncogenes in human cancers. We have conducted a comparative analysis of functional footprints (that is, effect on signaling and transcriptional landscapes in cells) associated with oncogenic and tumor suppressor mutations in EGFR pathway genes in human cancers. We have found that mutations in the EGFR pathway differentially have an impact on signaling and metabolic pathways in cancer cells in a mutation- and tissue-selective manner. For example, although signaling and metabolic profiles of breast tumors with PIK3CA or AKT1 mutations are, as expected, highly similar, they display markedly different, sometimes even opposite, profiles to those with ERBB2 or EGFR amplifications. On the other hand, although low-grade gliomas and glioblastomas, both brain cancers, driven by EGFR amplifications are highly functionally similar, their functional footprints are significantly different from lung and breast tumors driven by EGFR or ERBB2. Overall, these observations argue that, contrary to expectations, the mechanisms of tumorigenicity associated with mutations in different genes along the same pathway, or in the same gene across different tissues, may be highly different. We present evidence that oncogenic functional footprints in cancer cell lines have significantly diverged from those in tumor tissues, which potentially explains the discrepancy of our findings with the current knowledge. Nevertheless, our analyses reveal a common inflammatory response signature in EGFR-driven human cancers of different tissue origins. Our results may have implications in the design of therapeutic strategies in cancers driven by these oncogenes. Source

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