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Fizazi K.,University Paris - Sud | Scher H.I.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Molina A.,Janssen Research and Development | Logothetis C.J.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Abiraterone acetate improved overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer at a preplanned interim analysis of the COU-AA-301 double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Here, we present the final analysis of the study before crossover from placebo to abiraterone acetate (after 775 of the prespecified 797 death events). Methods: Between May 8, 2008, and July 28, 2009, this study enrolled 1195 patients at 147 sites in 13 countries. Patients were eligible if they had metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel. Patients were stratified according to baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, worst pain over the past 24 h on the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, number of previous chemotherapy regimens, and type of progression. Patients were randomly assigned (ratio 2:1) to receive either abiraterone acetate (1000 mg, once daily and orally) plus prednisone (5 mg, orally twice daily) or placebo plus prednisone with a permuted block method via an interactive web response system. The primary endpoint was overall survival, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00091442. Findings: Of the 1195 eligible patients, 797 were randomly assigned to receive abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (abiraterone group) and 398 to receive placebo plus prednisone (placebo group). At median follow-up of 20·2 months (IQR 18·4-22·1), median overall survival for the abiraterone group was longer than in the placebo group (15·8 months [95% CI 14·8-17·0] vs 11·2 months [10·4-13·1]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·64-0·86; p<0·0001). Median time to PSA progression (8·5 months, 95% CI 8·3-11·1, in the abiraterone group vs 6·6 months, 5·6-8·3, in the placebo group; HR 0·63, 0·52-0·78; p<0·0001), median radiologic progression-free survival (5·6 months, 5·6-6·5, vs 3·6 months, 2·9-5·5; HR 0·66, 0·58-0·76; p<0·0001), and proportion of patients who had a PSA response (235 [29·5%] of 797 patients vs 22 [5·5%] of 398; p<0·0001) were all improved in the abiraterone group compared with the placebo group. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were fatigue (72 [9%] of 791 patients in the abiraterone group vs 41 [10%] of 394 in the placebo group), anaemia (62 [8%] vs 32 [8%]), back pain (56 [7%] vs 40 [10%]), and bone pain (51 [6%] vs 31 [8%]). Interpretation: This final analysis confirms that abiraterone acetate significantly prolongs overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have progressed after docetaxel treatment. No new safety signals were identified with increased follow-up. Funding: Janssen Research & Development. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Blumenstein B.,Trial Architecture Consulting | Saad F.,University of Quebec at Montreal | Hotte S.,Juravinski Cancer Center | Chi K.N.,Cancer Agency Vancouver Cancer Center | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Medicine | Year: 2013

Elevated levels of clusterin (CLU), a stress-induced and secreted cytoprotective chaperone, are associated with advanced tumor stage, metastasis, treatment resistance, and adverse outcome in several cancers. Custirsen, a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide, inhibits CLU production in tumor cells and reduces serum CLU levels. A Phase 2 study evaluated custirsen in combination with second-line chemotherapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who had progressed while on or within 6 months of first-line docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Exploratory analyses evaluated serum CLU levels during custirsen treatment and correlative clinical effects on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, overall survival, and any relationship between serum CLU and PSA. Men with mCRPC were treated with mitoxantrone/prednisone/custirsen (MPC, n = 22) or docetaxel retreatment/prednisone/custirsen (DPC plus DPC-Assigned, n = 45) in an open-label, multicenter study. Subject-specific profiles of PSA and serum CLU levels during treatment were characterized using statistical modeling to compute subject-specific summary measures; these measures were analyzed for relationship to survival using proportional hazard regression. Estimated individual serum CLU response profiles were scored as below or at/above the median level for the population through 100 days postrandomization. Median survival was longer for subjects scoring below the median serum CLU level compared with subjects at/above the median level, respectively (MPC: 15.1 months vs. 6.2 months; DPC-Pooled: 17.0 months vs. 12.1 months). Lowered serum CLU levels during custirsen treatment when in combination with either chemotherapy regimen were predictive of longer survival in mCRPC. These results support further evaluation of serum CLU as a therapeutic biomarker. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Crea F.,Cancer Agency Cancer Research Center | Watahiki A.,Cancer Agency Cancer Research Center | Watahiki A.,The Vancouver Prostate Center | Quagliata L.,University of Basel | And 16 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is still an incurable disease. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may be an overlooked source of cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We therefore performed RNA sequencing on paired metastatic/nonmetastatic PCa xenografts derived from clinical specimens. The most highly upregulated transcript was LOC728606, a lncRNA now designated PCAT18. PCAT18 is specifically expressed in the prostate compared to 11 other normal tissues (p<0.05) and up-regulated in PCa compared to 15 other neoplasms (p<0.001). Cancer-specific up-regulation of PCAT18 was confirmed on an independent dataset of PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia samples (p<0.001). PCAT18 was detectable in plasma samples and increased incrementally from healthy individuals to those with localized and metastatic PCa (p<0.01). We identified a PCAT18-associated expression signature (PES), which is highly PCa-specific and activated in metastatic vs. primary PCa samples (p<1E-4, odds ratio >2). The PES was significantly associated with androgen receptor (AR) signalling. Accordingly, AR activation dramatically up-regulated PCAT18 expression in vitro and in vivo. PCAT18 silencing significantly (p<0.001) inhibited PCa cell proliferation and triggered caspase 3/7 activation, with no effect on nonneoplastic cells. PCAT18 silencing also inhibited PCa cell migration (p<0.01) and invasion (p<0.01). These results position PCAT18 as a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for metastatic PCa. Source

Robinson C.A.,University of British Columbia | Fyles G.,Cancer Agency Sindi Ahluwalia Hawkins Center for the Southern Interior | McKenzie M.,Cancer Agency Vancouver Cancer Center
Journal of Cancer Education | Year: 2015

Despite evidence that Goals of Care (GOC) discussions should occur early in the disease trajectory, the majority occur close to end of life. In a pilot, oncologists routinely initiated GOC discussions with all patients in their everyday ambulatory practice. Following the pilot, 9 of 12 eligible oncologists participated in semi-structured interviews about their experiences. Analysis resulted in the identification of seven principles of good GOC discussions embedded in the oncologists’ interviews, four barriers to engaging in GOC discussions and foundational education needs. Participants believed that the appropriate trigger for a GOC discussion is a diagnosis of advanced cancer, not simply a diagnosis of cancer, and supported the importance of selective and strategic targeting of GOC discussions. The findings have informed the development of an education-based model for culture change within a province-wide cancer care system. © 2015 American Association for Cancer Education Source

Bachner M.,ACR ITR VIEnna CEADDP | Loriot Y.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Gross-goupil M.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Zucali P.A.,Italian Germ Cell Cancer Group | And 18 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: 2-18fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been recommended in international guidelines in the evaluation of postchemotherapy seminoma residuals. Our trial was designed to validate these recommendations in a larger group of patients.Patients and methods: FDG-PET studies in patients with metastatic seminoma and residual masses after platinum-containing chemotherapy were correlated with either the histology of the resected lesion(s) or the clinical outcome.Results: One hundred and seventy seven FDG-PET results were contributed. Of 127 eligible PET studies, 69% were true negative, 11% true positive, 6% false negative, and 15% false positive. We compared PET scans carried out before and after a cut-off level of 6 weeks after the end of the last chemotherapy cycle. PET sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value were 50%, 77%, 91%, and 25%, respectively, before the cut-off and 82%, 90%, 95%, and 69% after the cut-off. PET accuracy significantly improved from 73% before to 88% after the cut-off (P = 0.032).Conclusion: Our study confirms the high specificity, sensitivity, and NPV of FDG-PET for evaluating postchemotherapy seminoma residuals. When carried out at an adequate time point, FDG-PET remains a valuable tool for clinical decision-making in this clinical setting and spares patients unnecessary therapy. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

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