Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Canberra, Australia

Stafford-Bell M.A.,Canberra Fertility Center | Everingham S.G.,Surrogacy Australia | Hammarberg K.,Monash University
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2014

Objective: To describe the outcomes of surrogacy among Australian intended parents who engage in compensated surrogacy overseas. Design, setting and participants: Members of two Australian parenting support forums who were considering surrogacy or were currently or previously in a surrogacy arrangement were invited to complete an anonymous online survey during July 2013. Main outcome measures: Destination countries; source of eggs; number of surrogates and embryo transfers; proportions who experienced pregnancy loss after 12 weeks’ gestation, multiple pregnancy, prematurity, and live birth by destination country; and intentions regarding disclosure to children about the way they were conceived. Results: Of 1135 potential participants, 259 (23%) completed the survey. Of these, 112 (43%) had undertaken at least one surrogacy attempt overseas. India and the United States were the two most common destination countries. Most respondents (95/112; 85%) had used donor eggs; half (57/112; 51%) had used more than one surrogate; and the mean number of embryo transfer procedures was 2.9. As a result of surrogacy, 85% (95/112) had at least one child; 55% (62/112) reported that their surrogate had a multiple pregnancy; 10% (11/112) reported that a pregnancy had ended in a late miscarriage or perinatal death; and 45% of births (35/78) were premature. Most respondents (80/112; 71%) were most comfortable with using an identity-release donor, and 87% (97/112) believed that this would also be in their child’s best interests. Almost universally, parents were planning to disclose the use of a surrogate and/or a donor to their child. Conclusions: Almost half of the intended parents via surrogacy who completed this survey had undertaken compensated surrogacy overseas; most of these used donor eggs, but few considered Australian donors. A high proportion of surrogates had multiple pregnancies and there was a high rate of premature birth. These adverse outcomes could be avoided if the surrogacy was undertaken in Australia. Removing some of the existing barriers to surrogacy in Australia may reduce the number of surrogacy arrangements carried out overseas. © MJA 2014, All right reserved. Source


Hammarberg K.,Monash University | Stafford-Bell M.,Canberra Fertility Center | Everingham S.,Surrogacy Australia
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2015

Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is becoming increasingly common. Little is known about the motivations and information and support needs of people who cross borders to access surrogacy. This study aimed to explore: how those considering or undertaking extraterritorial surrogacy reach their decision; what other avenues they have considered and tried to have children; their sources of information and support; and perceptions of how others view their decision. Members of two Australian parenting support forums completed an anonymous online survey. Of the 249 respondents, 51% were gay men, 43% heterosexual women and 7% heterosexual men. Most heterosexual respondents had tried to conceive spontaneously and with assisted reproductive technology before considering surrogacy. Most respondents felt supported in their decision to try extraterritorial surrogacy by close family and friends. Surrogacy-related information was mostly sourced online and from other parents through surrogacy. Few sought information from a local general practitioner or IVF clinic and those who did reported IVF clinic staff were significantly (P < 0.001) more likely than other groups to communicate negative reactions to their decision to seek surrogacy. The apparent negative attitudes to cross-border surrogacy among health professionals warrants further research into health professionals' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes relating to surrogacy. © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Source


Everingham S.G.,Surrogacy Australia | Stafford-Bell M.A.,Canberra Fertility Center | Hammarberg K.,Monash University
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2014

Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of parents and intended parents and their current and planned behaviour in relation to surrogacy arrangements. Design, setting and participants: Members of two Australian parenting support forums who were considering surrogacy or were currently or previously in a surrogacy arrangement were invited to complete an online survey during July 2013. Main outcome measures: Sociodemographic characteristics; proportions engaging in domestic uncompensated and overseas compensated arrangements; countries used; costs incurred; and impact on behaviour of state laws criminalising compensated surrogacy. Results: Of 1135 potential participants, 312 (27%) commenced the survey. Of these, 24 did not fulfi l inclusion criteria and 29 did not complete the survey. Eighty-nine respondents were considering surrogacy and 170 had commenced or completed surrogacy. Many respondents (53%) considered both overseas and domestic surrogacy. Among those who only considered one option, overseas surrogacy was considered signifi cantly more often than domestic surrogacy (92% v 8%; P < 0.05). Only 22 respondents (8%) commenced with a surrogate in Australia. The most common countries used for compensated surrogacy were India and the United States, and average total estimated costs were $69 212 for India and $172 347 for the U.S. Barriers discouraging domestic surrogacy included concern that the surrogate might keep the child (75%), belief that it was too long and complicated a process (68%) and having no one of the right age or life stage to ask (61%). Few intended parents (9%) were deterred by state laws criminalising compensated surrogacy. Conclusions: Most Australian intended parents via surrogacy consider or use overseas compensated arrangements. Laws banning compensated surrogacy do not appear to deter those seeking surrogacy arrangements. Source


Matson P.L.,Keogh Institute for Medical Research | Matson P.L.,Murdoch University | Myssonski K.,Canberra Fertility Center | Yovich S.,Pivet Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Reproductive Biology | Year: 2010

A multi-centre study was undertaken to: a/determine the density of human semen, and b/assess the validity of measuring semen volume either volumetrically or gravimetrically. Semen samples from four clinical categories (azoospermia following vasectomy, azoospermia without vasectomy, oligozoospermia (<20×106/ml) and normozoospermia (>20×106/ml)) had similar densities (one-way ANOVA: F(3,180) =1.25, not signifi cant), being close to 1.0 g/ml when taken to one decimal place. Measurement of semen volume was then made with either a graduated pipette or by weighing and assuming a density of 1 g/ml. A comparison of the two methods gave an excellent correlation, with a gradient of 1.0571 and a coeffi cient of determination (R2) of 0.98 (p <0.0001). However, it was noted that the aspiration of the ejaculate in to a graduated pipette underestimated the volume by approximately 0.2 ml, but in an inconsistent manner making the use of a set correction factor inappropriate. The estimation of volume to one decimal place by weighing the collection container before and after ejaculation, assuming a density of 1 g/ml, would seem to be a viable alternative although the density of a small number of samples may deviate from this assumption. Whilst the relatively small underestimation of volume with a pipette is unlikely to have clinical signifi cance, the known reporting of inaccurate results by a laboratory is contrary to the philosophy and key principles of quality management. © 2010 by the Society for Biology of Reproduction. Source


Liu Y.,Fertility North | Liu Y.,Edith Cowan University | Copeland C.,Canberra Fertility Center | Stevens A.,Canberra Fertility Center | And 6 more authors.
Reproductive Biology | Year: 2015

A total of 488 Day 3 human embryos with known implantation data from two independent in vitro fertilization laboratories were included for analysis, with 270 from Fertility North (FN) and 218 from Canberra Fertility Centre (CFC). Implanting embryos grew at different rates between FN and CFC as indicated in hours of the time intervals between pronuclear fading and the 4- (13.9 ± 1.1 vs. 14.9 ± 1.8), 5- (25.7 ± 1.9 vs. 28.4 ± 3.7) and 8-cell stages (29.0 ± 3.2 vs. 32.2 ± 4.6), as well as the durations of 2- (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 11.6 ± 1.1), 3- (0.4 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 1.2), and 4-cell stages (11.8 ± 1.4 vs. 13.6 ± 2.9), all p<. 0.05. The application of a previously published time-lapse algorithm on ICSI embryos from the two participating laboratories failed to reproduce a predictive pattern of implantation outcomes (FN: AUC = 0.565, p= 0.250; CFC: AUC = 0.614, p= 0.224). However, for the qualitative measures including poor conventional morphology, direct cleavage, reverse cleavage and <6 intercellular contact points at the end of the 4-cell stage, there were similar proportions of embryos showing at least one of these biological events in either implanting (3.1% vs. 3.3%, p>. 0.05) or non-implanting embryos (30.4% vs. 38.3%, p> 0.05) between FN and CFC. Furthermore, implanting embryos favored lower proportions of the above biological events compared to the non-implanting ones in both laboratories (both p< 0.01). To conclude, human embryo morphokinetics may vary between laboratories, therefore time-lapse algorithms emphasizing quantitative timing parameters may have reduced inter-laboratory transferability; qualitative measures are independent of cell division timings, with potentially improved inter-laboratory reproducibility. © 2015 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Source

Discover hidden collaborations