Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC

Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC

Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

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Penate B.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Castellano F.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Bello A.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Garcia-Rodriguez L.,University of Seville
Energy | Year: 2011

Desalination driven by renewable energies is an interesting technology in isolated coastal areas. Its feasibility and reliability are guaranteed by innumerable designs implemented and experiences carried out, mainly focused on small capacity systems. However, only mature and efficient technologies are suitable for medium or large scale desalination. In the case of seawater desalination, wind-powered reverse osmosis is the most efficient, mature and cost-effective technology. This paper assesses the most suitable design for seawater reverse osmosis desalination driven by off-grid wind energy systems. A high innovative design based on gradual capacity with nominal production of 1000 m3/d is compared to a conventional fixed capacity desalination plant. Due to the intermittent wind resource, the gradual capacity desalination plant is able to fit the available energy and maximize the annual water production. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Penate B.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Garcia-Rodriguez Lourdes L.,University of Seville
Energy | Year: 2011

Reduction of SEC (specific energy consumption) is the field with the most specific technical research focus and effort in SWRO (seawater reverse osmosis) plants. For existing installations with energy recovery systems consisting in Pelton turbines, the most significant challenge is how to reduce energy costs. The highest efficient isobaric ERD (energy recovery devices) are used in order to produce major savings in energy consumption in the desalination process and/or to increase the freshwater capacity of the installations, by taking full advantage of the plant equipment. This paper gives a brief overview of the technology used to recover the energy from brine stream in large desalination plants, with a description of the modifications required if the recovery system with Pelton turbines is to be replaced by systems based on isobaric-chamber devices. All possibilities analysed are deeply justified technically and thermoeconomically within an exhaustive assessment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Penate B.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Garcia-Rodriguez L.,University of Seville
Desalination | Year: 2012

Seawater reverse osmosis technology is fully mature at industrial scale which has been installed in all coastal areas around the world with limited natural hydrological resources. There are many technological advances and innovations which are trying to improve the reverse osmosis desalination process. In particular, all pursue to reduce the process energy consumption, as well as to minimize the harmful effects of scaling and fouling on membranes and to obtain higher water flux membranes. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the main innovations and future trends in the design of seawater reverse osmosis desalination technology. These are intended to improve the process performance and the efficiency of this technique for high production. Special focus is placed on the use of renewable energies as an innovation in the medium-term for medium and large production capacities. It supports desalination with renewable energies as an attractive combination in many regions with the possibility of reducing stress on existing water supplies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..


Penate B.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Garcia-Rodriguez L.,University of Seville
Desalination | Year: 2011

Water resources available in the island of Lanzarote, the furthest east of the Canary Islands Archipelago, come mostly from sea water desalination. Desalted water demand in the island has grown considerably in the last decade forcing managers to adapt desalinated water supply constantly. Additionally, the energy dependence of the water cycle in the island is relevant, so any corrective measures over the water supplies will be welcome if it gets more resource with the lowest energy cost. In this way, the authors described in detail and simulate the possible use of hybrid interstage element design of pressure vessels and Pelton retrofits in the Lanzarote IV SWRO plant by comparing the current situation. This desalination plant, one of the largest public desalination plants of the island, has an installed capacity of 30,000m3/day and more than 8years of operation. It is an excellent example to propose changes in order to reduce the process energy consumption, as well as to obtain another series of operation and maintenance advantages. This paper is focused on capital costs savings through the use of new generation membranes and replacing the existing Pelton turbines by other more efficient energy recovery systems based on isobaric chambers. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Penate B.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Garcia-Rodriguez L.,University of Seville
Desalination | Year: 2012

Desalination driven by renewable energies is an interesting technology in isolated areas. Its feasibility and reliability are guaranteed by innumerable designs implemented and experiences carried out, mainly focused on small capacity systems. This paper aims to design the optimum solar desalination system for nominal capacities of about 1000-5000m 3/d. A seawater reverse osmosis desalination unit powered by an Organic Rankine Cycle heated by a parabolic trough solar field is designed. The Rankine cycle proposed is designed to provide the total electricity demand of the desalination plant. Therefore, the system would be suitable for a stand-alone operation due to all the energy requirement is supplied by the solar system. Moreover, a general assessment of the proposed design in comparison to competitor technologies is provided. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..


Abreu-Acosta N.,University of La Laguna | Vera L.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2011

Two wastewater natural reclamation systems (WWNRS) have been compared regarding their efficiencies on faecal bacteria removal and the persistence of enteric pathogens. These WWNRS are constituted of a combination of anaerobic treatment, small sub-surface flow constructed wetland refilled of volcanic ashes and a final pond as water reservoir. Faecal coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, somatic coliphages, Salmonella sp., Campylobacter sp., Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp. and helminth eggs were analyzed in constructed wetlands inlet and outlet and storage pond effluent. Low numbers of protozoan positive samples (4.54% in Albergue de Bolico for both protozoa, and 19.05% in Carrizal Alto for Giardia sp.) and absence of helminth eggs were found. Both systems demonstrated efficient reduction of faecal contamination indicators in the wastewaters (removal rates values of 2log10). The natural systems for wastewater treatment used to be efficient in Salmonella abatement, this fact was confirmed in the reported systems, since enterobacteriaceae were found in only one of the effluents. Campylobacter species associated with the access of animals to storage ponds were detected in the reclaimed water. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Uche J.,University of Zaragoza | Martinez A.,University of Zaragoza | Castellano C.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Subiela V.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013

In this paper, the results of the complete life-cycle assessment (LCA) analysis of the water cycle in two Spanish urban areas are presented. First case study was Zaragoza city (700,000 inhabitants), with enough surface water resources for drinking purpose. Second case was the Mancomunidad del Sureste, a highly populated and touristic area in a water-scarce island (Gran Canaria). Main objective of the paper was to show, from an environmental global perspective, which was the relative pollutant weights of the diverse water cycle stages in an urban area, in order to put the efforts in reducing the environmental penalties associated to the water cycle. Results showed that environmental load associated to energy consumed in dwelling uses (to produce hot sanitary water) exceeded by far the environmental impact provoked by water cycle infrastructures (water treatment plants, water supply and drainage networks, and wastewater treatment plants). Additionally, it is very important to remark that new water supply alternatives (seawater desalination plant as well as reclaimed wastewater) studied here were energy intensive solutions, and the environmental charge during its life cycle was also very significant. © 2013 Desalination Publications.


Medina-Dominguez E.J.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Medina-Padron J.F.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Energies | Year: 2015

The stability and security of small and isolated power systems can be compromised when large amounts of wind power enter them. Wind power integration depends on such factors as power generation capacity, conventional generation technology or grid topology. Another issue that can be considered is critical clearing time (CCT). In this paper, wind power and CCT are studied in a small isolated power system. Two types of wind turbines are considered: a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) and a full converter. Moreover, the full converter wind turbine's inertia emulation capability is considered, and its impact on CCT is discussed. Voltage is taken into account because of its importance in power systems of this kind. The study focuses on the small, isolated Lanzarote-Fuerteventura power system, which is expected to be in operation by 2020. © 2015 by the authors.


Carta J.A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Gonzalez J.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Cabrera P.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Subiela V.J.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

Given the significant water-energy problems associated with many remote and arid areas of the planet, most studies, projects and developments of installations for the production of fresh water using desalination technologies powered by renewable energy sources have focussed on small-scale stand-alone systems. The most commonly used energy sources have been solar photovoltaic and wind and the most widely applied desalination technology that of reverse osmosis (RO). Most of the systems use batteries as a means of mass energy storage and the RO plants normally operate at constant pressure and flow rate. This paper presents a small-scale prototype SWRO (seawater reverse osmosis) desalination plant designed to continuously adapt its energy consumption to the variable power supplied by a wind turbine (WT), dispensing with mass energy storage in batteries and proposing the use of a supercapacitor bank as a dynamic regulation system. A description is given of the tests performed to date with the SWRO desalination plant connected to the conventional grid while controlling the number of pressure vessels that are connected/disconnected to/from the system and regulating their operating pressures and flow rates (within predetermined admissible limits) to maintain a constant permeate recovery rate and adapt the energy consumption of the plant to a widely varying simulated wind energy supply.One of the most important conclusions that can be drawn from the studies undertaken is the feasibility of adapting the consumption of the prototype of the SWRO desalination plant to widely varying WT-generated power. Despite using various time interval lengths in which it was assumed that the WT output power remained constant, a perfect fit was not obtained between the theoretical WT-generated power and the power consumed by the SWRO desalination plant, nor was it possible to maintain a constant permeate recovery rate at each instant. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Vera L.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Martel G.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC | Marquez M.,Canary Islands Institute of Technology ITC
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2013

The objective of this work is to describe the performance of the Santa Lucía natural system for wastewater reclamation (NSWWR) in its first two operating years, where it was run under distinct conditions from the initial design. This plant, located in the island of Gran Canaria, has yielded a wealth of information on the implementation of low-cost technologies in subtropical areas with water scarcity, both ecologically as well as socially sustainable, and the option of installing similar plants in coastal zones. The system also served as a local pilot plant for a natural technology of wastewater reclamation, alternative to conventional solutions, whether centralized or onsite, usually applied for the treatment of domestic wastewater in rural areas. In fact, over the years local wastewater treatment has demonstrated clear advantages: no need for electricity, no leakage of raw sewage along the sewerage systems, social and landscape integration, exploitation of by-products like macrophyte-derived material for local handcrafts, and reuse of reclaimed water for irrigation. Remarkably, the plant operated under forced conditions of a hydraulic overload of 200%; however, the influence of a climate with stable mean temperatures and mild winters may have contributed to a satisfactory overall performance. Mean removal efficiencies were even higher than expected: more than 80% for biochemical and 75% for chemical oxygen demand (BOD5 and COD), and 90% for total suspended solids (TSS). Mean decrease of nitrogen and phosphorus were 50 and 30%, respectively, while abatement of fecal indicators attained 2log units. The data collected from the Santa Lucia wastewater reclamation system represent an exceptional case study, which may be potentially transferred to other rural or littoral communities that lack sanitation and reclamation systems. Moreover, the option of wastewater reuse and zero discharge is particularly attractive for arid zones. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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