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Xu X.,Xian University of Science and Technology | Xu X.,Xian Jiaotong University | Akay A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Wei H.,Novatein Biosciences Inc. | And 14 more authors.
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2015

Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics is playing an increasingly important role in public health, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. Smartphones, alone or in conjunction with add-on devices, have shown great capability of data collection, analysis, display, and transmission, making them popular in POC diagnostics. In this article, the state-of-the-art advances in smartphone-based POC diagnostic technologies and their applications in the past few years are outlined, ranging from in vivo tests that use smartphone's built-in/external sensors to detect biological signals to in vitro tests that involves complicated biochemical reactions. Novel techniques are illustrated by a number of attractive examples, followed by a brief discussion of the smartphone's role in telemedicine. The challenges and perspectives of smartphone-based POC diagnostics are also provided. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Ronald J.A.,Stanford University | Chuang H.-Y.,Stanford University | Chuang H.-Y.,National Yang Ming University | Dragulescu-Andrasi A.,Stanford University | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Earlier detection of cancers can dramatically improve the efficacy of available treatment strategies. However, despite decades of effort on blood-based biomarker cancer detection, many promising endogenous biomarkers have failed clinically because of intractable problems such as highly variable background expression from nonmalignant tissues and tumor heterogeneity. In this work we present a tumor-detection strategy based on systemic administration of tumor-activatable minicircles that use the pan-tumor-specific Survivin promoter to drive expression of a secretable reporter that is detectable in the blood nearly exclusively in tumor-bearing subjects. After systemic administration we demonstrate a robust ability to differentiate mice bearing human melanoma metastases from tumor-free subjects for up to 2 wk simply by measuring blood reporter levels. Cumulative change in reporter levels also identified tumor-bearing subjects, and a receiver operator-characteristic curve analysis highlighted this test ' s performance with an area of 0.918 ± 0.084. Lung tumor burden additionally correlated (r2 = 0.714; P < 0.05) with cumulative reporter levels, indicating that determination of disease extent was possible. Continued development of our system could improve tumor detectability dramatically because of the temporally controlled, high reporter expression in tumors and nearly zero background from healthy tissues. Our strategy's highly modular nature also allows it to be iteratively optimized over time to improve the test's sensitivity and specificity. We envision this system could be used first in patients at high risk for tumor recurrence, followed by screening high-risk populations before tumor diagnosis, and, if proven safe and effective, eventually may have potential as a powerful cancer-screening tool for the general population. cancer minicircles tumor-specific promoter reporter gene blood test. © 2015, Wiley-Blackwell. All right reserved.

Tasoglu S.,University of Connecticut | Cumhur Tekin H.,Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection | Inci F.,Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection | Knowlton S.,Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2015

Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been shown in many studies as a prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer, which is the second most common and predominant form of malignancy among women worldwide, with 270 000 deaths (80% of whom live in developing countries) and 500 000 new cases per year. Early diagnosis of cervical cancer allows patients to be fully treated. Therefore, there is high clinical utility of HPV diagnostics even with binary positive/negative indication of the presence of HPV in patient samples. Although the Pap smear is widely used for cervical cancer screening, this method still suffers from low sensitivity and specificity. Thus, simple, rapid and inexpensive diagnostic methods are needed to detect the etiology of cervical cancer, i.e., HPV, especially high-risk oncogenic subtypes 16 and 18. Here, we review the existing assays and platforms employed for HPV diagnosis, and highlight recent advances in nanotechnology and microfluidics that potentially enable new approaches for HPV diagnosis. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

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