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Meylan C.M.P.,University of Auckland | Meylan C.M.P.,Canadian Sport Institute Pacific | Cronin J.B.,University of Auckland | Cronin J.B.,Edith Cowan University | And 3 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports

To investigate how maturity status modifies the effects of strength training and detraining on performance, we subjected 33 young men to 8weeks of strength training twice per week followed by 8weeks without training. Changes in performance tests were analyzed in three maturity groups based on years from/to age of predicted peak height velocity (PHV): pre-PHV (-1.7±0.4years; n=10), mid-PHV (-0.2±0.4years; n=11), and post-PHV (1.0±0.4years; n=12). Mean training effects on one repetition maximum strength (3.6-10.0%), maximum explosive power (11-20%), jump length (6.5-7.4%), and sprint times (-2.1% to -4.7%) ranged from small to large, with generally greater changes in mid- and post-PHV groups. Changes in force-velocity relationships reflected generally greater increases in strength at faster velocities. In the detraining period, the pre-PHV group showed greatest loss of strength and power, the post-PHV group showed some loss of sprint performance, but all groups maintained or improved jump length. Strength training was thus generally less effective before the growth spurt. Maintenance programs are needed for most aspects of explosive performance following strength training before the growth spurt and for sprint speed after the growth spurt. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Stellingwerff T.,Canadian Sport Institute Pacific | Cox G.R.,Australian Institute of Sport
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism

This systematic review examines the efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on exercise performance of varying durations. Included studies utilized an all-out or endurance-based exercise protocol (no team-based performance studies) and featured randomized interventions and placebo (water-only) trial for comparison against exclusively CHO trials (no other ingredients). Of the 61 included published performance studies (n= 679 subjects), 82% showed statistically significant performance benefits (n= 50 studies), with 18% showing no change compared with placebo. There was a significant (p= 0.0036) correlative relationship between increasing total exercise time and the subsequent percent increase in performance with CHO intake versus placebo. While not mutually exclusive, the primary mechanism(s) for performance enhancement likely differs depending on the duration of the exercise. In short duration exercise situations (~1h), oral receptor exposure to CHO, via either mouthwash or oral consumption (with enough oral contact time), which then stimulates the pleasure and reward centers of the brain, provide a central nervous system-based mechanism for enhanced performance. Thus, the type and (or) amount of CHO and its ability to be absorbed and oxidized appear completely irrelevant to enhancing performance in short duration exercise situations. For longer duration exercise (>2 h), where muscle glycogen stores are stressed, the primary mechanism by which carbohydrate supplementation enhances performance is via high rates of CHO delivery (>90 g/h), resulting in high rates of CHO oxidation. Use of multiple transportable carbohydrates (glucose:fructose) are beneficial in prolonged exercise, although individual recommendations for athletes should be tailored according to each athlete's individual tolerance. Source

Stellingwerff T.,Canadian Sport Institute Pacific | Pyne D.B.,Australian Institute of Sport | Burke L.M.,Australian Institute of Sport
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

Elite athletes who compete in aquatic sports face the constant challenge of arduous training and competition schedules in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The huge range of water temperatures to which swimmers and other aquatic athletes are often exposed (16-31 ° C for open-water swimming), coupled with altered aquatic thermoregulatory responses as compared with terrestrial athletes, can challenge the health, safety, and performance of these athletes. Other environmental concerns include air and water pollution, altitude, and jetlag and travel fatigue. However, these challenging environments provide the potential for several nutritional interventions that can mitigate the negative effects and enhance adaptation and performance. These interventions include providing adequate hydration and carbohydrate and iron intake while at altitude; optimizing body composition and fluid and carbohydrate intake when training or competing in varying water temperatures; and maximizing fluid and food hygiene when traveling. There is also emerging information on nutritional interventions to manage jetlag and travel fatigue, such as the timing of food intake and the strategic use of caffeine or melatonin. Aquatic athletes often undertake their major global competitions where accommodations feature cafeteria-style buffet eating. These environments can often lead to inappropriate choices in the type and quantity of food intake, which is of particular concern to divers and synchronized swimmers who compete in physique-specific sports, as well as swimmers who have a vastly reduced energy expenditure during their taper. Taken together, planned nutrition and hydration interventions can have a favorable impact on aquatic athletes facing varying environmental challenges. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source

Mujika I.,University of the Basque Country | Mujika I.,Finis Terrae University | Stellingwerff T.,Canadian Sport Institute Pacific | Tipton K.,University of Stirling
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source

Stellingwerff T.,Canadian Sport Institute Pacific
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

The professionalization of any sport must include an appreciation for how and where nutrition can positively affect training adaptation and/or competition performance. Furthermore, there is an ever-increasing importance of nutrition in sports that feature very high training volumes and are of a long enough duration that both glycogen and fluid balance can limit performance. Indeed, modern marathon training programs and racing satisfy these criteria and are uniquely suited to benefit from nutritional interventions. Given that muscle glycogen is limiting during a 2-h marathon, optimizing carbohydrate (CHO) intake and delivery is of maximal importance. Furthermore, the last 60 y of marathon performance have seen lighter and smaller marathoners, which enhances running economy and heat dissipation and increases CHO delivery per kg body mass. Finally, periodically training under conditions of low CHO availability (eg, low muscle glycogen) or periods of mild fluid restriction may actually further enhance the adaptive responses to training. Accordingly, this commentary highlights these key nutrition and hydration interventions that have emerged over the last several years and explores how they may assist in world-class marathon performance. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source

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