The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the federal regulator of nuclear power and materials in Canada. In addition to nuclear power plants and nuclear research facilities, the CNSC regulates numerous other uses of nuclear material such as radionuclides used in the treatment of cancer, the operation of uranium mines and refineries, and the use of radioactive sources for oil exploration, and in instruments such as precipitation measurement devices. The CNSC is an agency of the Government of Canada which reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Natural Resources. Wikipedia.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-02-2014 | Award Amount: 4.57M | Year: 2015
When dealing with emergency, two issues with fully different time requirements and operational objectives, and thus different methods and tools, have to be considered: emergency preparedness and emergency response. This project will address both issues by combining the efforts of organizations active in these two areas to make already identified deterministic reference tools and methods a decisive step toward. In particular capabilities of these methods and tools will be extended to tackle main categories of accident scenarios in main types of operating or foreseen water-cooled NPPs in Europe, including Spent Fuel Pools. A first task will be the identification of these categories of scenario, the proposition of a methodology for their description and the development of a database of scenarios. Building this database will constitute a first important step in the harmonisation goal defended in this project. Promising probabilistic approaches based on Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) are currently developed to complement operational deterministic methodologies and tools by contributing to diagnosis accidental situations. The development of the methodologies will be pursued in this project with the extension of the existing deterministic ones to European reactors. Both approaches will be assessed against the above mentioned database of scenarios. Finally a comprehensive set of emergency exercises will be developed and proposed to be run by a large set of partners. A first series of exercises will address source term evaluations that will be compared to the reference source terms from the scenarios database. Then a second series of exercises will be proposed on the same scenarios that will be used for the first series but accounting for the main emergency objective : to protect the populations. Progresses made by the methods and tools developed within this project will be notably assessed by comparing the results obtained in these two series of exercises.
Salway A.,Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
9th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies, NPIC and HMIT 2015 | Year: 2015
Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission staff was part of a technical steering committee that developed a new Canadian Standards Association standard, "CSA N290.12 Human Factors in Design for Nuclear Power Plants". In this context, and with a view to updating the current CNSC regulatory documents concerning human factors in design, a review of good practices was conducted for human factors in design approaches, processes and activities. This paper describes the results of this work for the specific topic of "evaluation" in human factors in design. "Evaluation" is a term that encompasses inspection-based evaluations, usability testing, verification, and validation. This paper describes why evaluations are carried out, what they involve, and when they are conducted in the system design process. The application of evaluation approaches beyond the design process is also considered. Source
Zablotska L.B.,University of California at San Francisco |
Lane R.S.D.,Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission |
Frost S.E.,Frost and Frost Consultants
BMJ Open | Year: 2013
Objectives: Uranium processing workers are exposed to uranium and radium compounds from the ore dust and to γ-ray radiation, but less to radon decay products (RDP), typical of the uranium miners. We examined the risks of these exposures in a cohort of workers from Port Hope radium and uranium refinery and processing plant. Design: A retrospective cohort study with carefully documented exposures, which allowed separation of those with primary exposures to radium and uranium. Settings: Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, uranium processors with no mining experience. Participants: 3000 male and female workers first employed (1932-1980) and followed for mortality (1950-1999) and cancer incidence (1969-1999). Outcome measures: Cohort mortality and incidence were compared with the general Canadian population. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the association between cumulative RDP exposures and γ-ray doses and causes of death and cancers potentially related to radium and uranium processing. Results: Overall, workers had lower mortality and cancer incidence compared with the general Canadian population. In analyses restricted to men (n=2645), the person-year weighted mean cumulative RDP exposure was 15.9 working level months (WLM) and the mean cumulative whole-body γ-ray dose was 134.4 millisieverts. We observed small, non-statistically significant increases in radiation risks of mortality and incidence of lung cancer due to RDP exposures (excess relative risks/100 WLM=0.21, 95% CI <-0.45 to 1.59 and 0.77, 95% CI <-0.19 to 3.39, respectively), with similar risks for those exposed to radium and uranium. All other causes of death and cancer incidence were not significantly associated with RDP exposures or γ-ray doses or a combination of both. Conclusions: In one of the largest cohort studies of workers exposed to radium, uranium and γ-ray doses, no significant radiation-associated risks were observed for any cancer site or cause of death. Continued follow-up and pooling with other cohorts of workers exposed to by-products of radium and uranium processing could provide valuable insight into occupational risks and suspected differences in risk with uranium miners. Source
Todorovska M.I.,University of Southern California |
Trifunac M.D.,University of Southern California |
Lee V.W.,University of Southern California |
Orbovic N.,Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2013
Linear and especially non-linear analyses of spatially extended structures, such as pipelines and bridges, often requires specification of time histories of ground motion at an array of closely spaced points. As the number of dense accelerograph arrays worldwide is small, and the number of earthquake observations is limited, synthetic motions with desired characteristics become necessary. This paper presents a method for synthesizing such motions, which is an extension of the SYNACC method, developed first in the early 1970s for synthetic accelerations, velocities and displacements at a point, and later extended to synthetic near surface strains, rotations and curvatures of ground motion at a point. It consists of unfolding in time a site specific Fourier amplitude spectrum of ground acceleration, obtained by an empirical scaling model, by representing the ground motion as a superposition of traveling wavelets of Love and Rayleigh waves and body waves, which propagate with phase and group velocities consistent with the dispersion characteristic of the site geology, approximated by parallel layers. Uniform hazard Fourier spectra or any specified target Fourier spectrum can also be used. Derivations of the point strains, rotations and curvatures are also presented. The method is illustrated for scenario M6.5 and M7.5 earthquakes and three dispersion models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source
News Article | September 12, 2016
A small entrepreneurial start-up developing a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR), based on the design work of the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), is looking for a site to build a test bed for its technology in the Odessa, TX, area. X-Energy sent company representatives to the area last week who met with a team from the University of Texas Permian Basin (UTPB) and the Odessa Development Corp which serves Ector County, TX. According the local news media reports, Eben Mulder, X-Energy’s Chief Nuclear Officer, said his firm is hoping to pull together academic and community resources top create the basis for building a test facility for its Xe-100 HTGR. UTPB has a newly developed nuclear engineering program that could work with the company. The Xe-100 at full commercial scale is expected to be able to generate 80 MW of electricity and provide 200 MW of process heat from extremely hot helium used in the reactor. X-Energy plans to offer the reactor to customers in configurations of four units each. Last January the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded X-Energy a $40 million grant. The firm has also invested $13 million of its own money. More recently, it partnered with Southern Nuclear with also has a $40 million grant from DOE to conduct work on design of a molten chloride salt reactor MCSR). What is common to both the HTGR being worked on by X-Energy and the MSR being developed by Southern Nuclear is that they use TRISO “pebble bed” fuel which was developed for the PBMR work in South Africa. Several of the key technology executives at X-Energy are veterans of the PBMR project. While no formal commitments have been made by the parties involved, the enthusiasm for the effort, expressed by the parties involved, embodies traditional Texas values that the effort will be a very big deal. Mulder told the Odessa news media that “nuclear energy is a sustainable solution.” “I’m talking about cost, safety, proliferation resistance, emissions, and security of [electricity] supply.” Jim Write, UTPB’s director of economic development, expressed enthusiasm for the X-Energy project. He said the firm could be expected to spend more than $1 billion on development of the Xe-100 including a test and demonstration facility. Terrestrial Energy Lands $4M in New Round of Funding A Canadian company developing a integrated molten salt reactor (IMSR) has landed a new round of Series A funding. The $4 million added to previous funding raises total in Series A funding so far to $17.2 million. The funds are being used to develop a commercial implementation of the IMSR which is based on a design originally developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1950s. Unlike conventional light water reactors, the IMSR uses a liquid fuel suspended in a hot liquid salt medium, which doubles as the coolant, and which operates at atmospheric pressure. The firm is reportedly working with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission to conduct an assessment of its technology relative to the agency’s safety standards. In March 2016, Terrestrial Energy announced a grant award of CAD $5.7 million from the Canadian Federal Government’s Sustainable Development Technology Canada’s (SDTC) SD Tech Fund. The source of the latest investment was not disclosed by the company. The firm is targeting having a design ready for customers in the 2020s. Urenco Takes the Wraps Off its Nuclear Battery Project A firm that operates a uranium enrichment plant in southeastern New Mexico is developing a 4 MW HTRG that will use TRISO fuel enriched to 19.2% U-235. Fuel Cycle Week (FCW) publisher Andre Jennetta reported the development in the September 8, 2016, issue of the industry newsletter. According to the FCW report, Urenco’s work is in its initial phase of design. According to the company’s website, Urenco has initiated talks with potential technology partners and investors in Poland, Japan, and the UK. The firm’s technology executives have significant experience with work on small modular reactors. The company reports on its website that in May 2016 it announced the agreement of terms with the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) to cooperate for the deployment of U-Battery in Poland. Agreement was reached and a Confidentiality Agreement was signed during the visit of the Polish Undersecretaries of State for Energy, Andrzej Piotrowski and Michal Kurtyka, to the United Kingdom on 24-25 May, accompanied by other senior officials from the Polish Ministry of Energy. In July Urenco team members conducted a working level meeting with officials from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Urenco is also targeting the SMR competition for $250M in the UK.