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Fernandez-Triana J.L.,University of Guelph | Whitfield J.B.,Urbana University | Rodriguez J.J.,The University of Virginias College at Wise | Alex Smith M.,University of Guelph | And 9 more authors.

More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world's best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae) is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica -including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene), information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/ gregariousness of wasp larvae), ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae, Elachistidae and Crambidae (Lepidoptera). About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9%) parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography) to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900), comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921), comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964), stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904), stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernández-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae, christianzunigai, cinthiabarrantesae, ciriloumanai, cristianalemani, cynthiacorderoae, deifiliadavilae, dickyui, didiguadamuzi, diegoalpizari, diegotorresi, diniamartinezae, duniagarciae, duvalierbricenoi, edgarjimenezi, edithlopezae, eduardoramirezi, edwinapui, eldarayae, erickduartei, esthercentenoae, eugeniaphilipsae, eulogiosequeira, felipechavarriai, felixcarmonai, fernandochavarriai, flormoralesae, franciscopizarroi, franciscoramirezi, freddyquesadai, freddysalazari, gabrielagutierrezae, garygibsoni, gerardobandoi, gerardosandovali, gladysrojasae, glenriverai, gloriasihezarae, guadaluperodriguezae, guillermopereirai, juanmatai, harryramirezi, hectorsolisi, humbertolopezi, inesolisae, irenecarrilloae, isaacbermudezi, isidrochaconi, isidrovillegasi, ivonnetranae, jairomoyai, javiercontrerasi, javierobandoi, javiersihezari, jesusbrenesi, jesusugaldei, jimmychevezi, johanvargasi, jorgecortesi, jorgehernandezi, josecalvoi, josecortesi, josediazi, josejaramilloi, josemonteroi, joseperezi, joserasi, juanapui, juancarrilloi, juangazoi, juanhernandezi, juanlopezi, juanvictori, juliodiazi, juniorlopezi, keineraragoni, laurahuberae, laurenmoralesae, leninguadamuzi, leonelgarayi, lilliammenae, lisabearssae, luciariosae, luisbrizuelai, luiscanalesi, luiscantillanoi, luisgarciai, luisgaritai, luishernandezi, luislopezi, luisvargasi, manuelarayai, manuelpereirai, manuelriosi, manuelzumbadoi, marcobustosi, marcogonzalezi, marcovenicioi, mariachavarriae mariaguevarae, marialuisariasae, mariamendezae, marianopereirai, mariatorrentesae, sigifredomarini, marisolarroyoae, marisolnavarroae, marvinmendozai, mauriciogurdiani, milenagutierrezae, monicachavarriae, oscarchavesi, osvaldoespinozai, pablotranai, pabloumanai, pablovasquezi, paulaixcamparijae, luzmariaromeroae, petronariosae, randallgarciai, randallmartinezi, raulacevedoi, raulsolorsanoi, wadyobandoi, ricardocaleroi, robertmontanoi, robertoespinozai, robertovargasi, rodrigogamezi, rogerblancoi, rolandoramosi, rolandovegai, ronaldcastroi, ronaldgutierrezi, ronaldmurilloi, ronaldnavarroi, ronaldquirosi, ronaldzunigai, rosibelelizondoae, ruthfrancoae, sergiocascantei, sergioriosi, tiboshartae, vannesabrenesae, minornavarroi, victorbarrantesi, waldymedinai, wilbertharayai, williamcamposi, yeissonchavesi, yilbertalvaradoi, yolandarojasae, hazelcambroneroae, zeneidabolanosae. Source

Gupta A.,National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects | Fernandez-Triana J.L.,Canadian National Collection of Insects
Systematic Parasitology

Four new species of the genus Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) are described and illustrated: Diolcogaster andamanensis n. sp. from the Andaman Islands, and D. duocolor n. sp., D. longistria n. sp. and D. solitarium n. sp. from mainland India. The solitary larval parasitoid D. solitarium was reared from Gatesclarkeana sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). A new combination, Diolcogaster tomentosae (Wilkinson, 1930) n. comb., is proposed for the Indian species Protomicroplitis tomentosae (Wilkinson, 1930) along with its redescription and documentation of the gregarious cocoons associated with the pyralid (Epipaschiinae) host feeding on Terminalia cattappa L. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Bennett A.M.R.,Canadian National Collection of Insects | Saaksjarvi I.E.,University of Turku | Broad G.R.,Natural History Museum in London

The genus Erythrodolius previously comprised ten species of ichneumonids: nine from Madagascar and one from Costa Rica. The current study revises the New World species of Erythrodolius including descriptions of three new species from Central America which brings the world total to 13 species: E. incompletus sp. n., E. luteus sp. n. and E. tenebrosus sp. n. A key to the world species is provided. Justification for the preference of the subfamily name Sisyrostolinae instead of Brachyscleromatinae is provided. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Ward D.,Landcare Research | Goulet H.,Canadian National Collection of Insects
New Zealand Entomologist

Phytophagous (plant and wood feeding) wasps are very poorly represented in New Zealand. Larvae of woodwasps in the endemic genus Moaxiphia (Xiphydriidae) develop in the wood of angiosperms, and although they appear to be widespread they are rarely collected. This paper describes Moaxiphia gourlayi Ward & Goulet sp. n. from New Zealand. New data on species distributions are presented, along with a dichotomous key to Moaxiphia in New Zealand. Source

Andujar C.,University of Murcia | Grebennikov V.V.,Canadian National Collection of Insects | Lencina J.L.,University of Murcia | Serrano J.,University of Murcia

Adult and larva of Typhlocharis toletana n. sp. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Anillini) are described from the province of Toledo, Central Spain. Identical mitochondrial cox1 gene haplotype suggested that the adults and larvae are conspecific. Typhlocharis toletana is the third species of the genus with an unguiform shape of gonocoxite 2 of the ovipositor, a character state that is considered as ancestral. However, T. toletana is not closely related to the other two species having a similarly shaped gonocoxite 2, as judged by their morphological characters and geographic distribution. It is concluded that this ancestral state has been kept in different lineages within Typhlocharis. Species relationships inferred from a preliminary molecular analysis of five Typhlocharis taxa are not congruent with putative morphological lineages. Finally, it was found that the larva of T. toletana is morphologically indistinguishable from that of Typhlocharis sp. described by Arndt et al. (1999). Copyright © 2010. Source

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