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Objectives: To investigate the effects of topical agents for the treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) and Myofascial Trigger Point (MTRP).Methods: Subjects with an identifiable trigger point in the trapezius muscle, age 18-80 were recruited for a single-session randomized, placebo-blinded clinical study. Baseline measurements of trapezius muscle pressure pain threshold (PPT: by pressure algometer) along with right and left cervical lateral flexion (rangiometer) were obtained by a blinded examiner. An assessor blinded to the outcomes assessments applied one of 6 topical formulations which had been placed in identical plastic containers. Five of these topicals were proposed active formulations; the control group was given a non-active formulation (PLA). Five minutes after the application of the formula the outcome measures were re-tested. Data were analyzed with a 5-way ANOVA and Holms-adjusted t-tests with an alpha level of 0.05.Results: 120 subjects were entered into the study (63 females; ages 16-82); 20 subjects randomly allocated into each group. The pre- and post-treatment results for pressure threshold did show significant intra-group increases for the Ben-Gay Ultra Strength Muscle Pain Ointment (BG), the Professional Therapy MuscleCare Roll-on (PTMC roll-on) and Motion Medicine Cream (MM) with an increased threshold of 0.5 kg/cm2(+/-0.15), 0.72 kg/cm2(+/-0.17) and 0.47 Kg/cm2(+/-0.19) respectively. With respect to the inter-group comparisons, PTMC roll-on showed significant increases in pressure threshold compared with Placebo (PLA) (p = 0.002) and Icy Hot Extra Strength Cream (IH) (p = 0.006). In addition, BG demonstrated significant increases in pressure threshold compared with PLA (p = 0.0003).Conclusions: With regards to pressure threshold, PTMC roll-on, BG and MM showed significant increases in pain threshold tolerance after a short-term application on a trigger points located in the trapezius muscle. PTMC roll-on and BG were both shown to be superior vs placebo while PTMC was also shown to be superior to IH in patients with trigger points located in the trapezius muscle on a single application.CMCC Research Ethics Board Approval # 1012X01, 2011. © 2012 Avrahami et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Budgell B.S.,Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine | Year: 2013

Biomedical language, also known as biomedical English, is sufficiently different from general English to warrant treatment as a distinct language. Biomedical language has its own conventions of grammar, phraseology and discourse, as well as a lexicon which is complex and esoteric. Furthermore, each sub-discipline, such as integrative medicine, has a unique vocabulary which must be mastered in order to achieve fluency. In this article, the vocabulary specific to acupuncture is identified, and strategies are introduced to master the use of that vocabulary. © 2013 Brian Stephen Budgell. Source

Kinsinger F.S.,Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College
Journal of Chiropractic Humanities | Year: 2010

Objective: This article offers a brief discussion of the definition and importance of beneficence in the context of the chiropractic profession. Discussion: Beneficence is defined as an act of charity, mercy, and kindness with a strong connotation of doing good to others including moral obligation. All professionals have the foundational moral imperative of doing right. In the context of the professional-client relationship, the professional is obligated to, always and without exception, favor the well-being and interest of the client. In health care, beneficence is one of the fundamental ethics. An integral part of work as a professional is the foundational ethic of beneficence. An understanding of this ethic of care compels the individual health practitioner to consider his or her calling to the high standards of professionalism as a moral imperative; one that advocates for high standards and strives for the greater good. Conclusion: Health care professionals have a duty of care that extends to the patient, professional colleagues, and to society as a whole. Any individual professional who neither understands nor accepts this duty is at risk for acting malevolently and violating the fiduciary principle of honoring and protecting the patient. © 2009 National University of Health Sciences. Source

Lawson G.,Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a novel instrument for assessing headache-related disability focusing solely on important activities of daily living. Methods Part 1: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar, supplemented by hand searches in bibliographies to retrieve the original article for any instrument for the assessment of headache-related disability. Each instrument was evaluated for item categories, specific item content, measurement scale format for each item, and instructions to users. Together, these features constituted the construct validity of these instruments. Qualitative evaluations of these results were summarized with respect to the adequacy of each component. Psychometric features such as reliability and validity were not assessed. Part 2: An existing instrument for assessing self-rated disability, the Neck Disability Index, was modified for content and format and subjected to 2 rounds of clinician and patient review. Item contents and formats received final consensus, resulting in a 9-item instrument: the Headache Activities of Daily Living Index (HADLI). This instrument was tested in a sample of headache patients. Cronbach α and individual item correlations were obtained. Principal Components Analysis was performed. Results Part 1: The search identified 6 reports on 5 preexisting instruments for self-rating of headache-related disability. Problems in content were found in all instruments, especially relating to the lack of items for specific activities of daily living. Problems were noted in most of the instruments for scaling and instructions with respect to the effect of headache on activities of daily living. Part 2: The authors first identified suitable items from an existing instrument for self-rating of disability. These were supplemented by items drawn from the literature. A panel of 3 clinicians and 2 laypersons evaluated these items. Two more focus groups of 7 headache sufferers each reviewed the new instrument. After this, a 9-item instrument for assessing activities of daily living in headache sufferers, the HADLI, was finalized. After this, 53 participants were recruited to study the face validity of the instrument. The sample consisted of 41 women and 12 men with a mean age of 37.3 (12) years; mean duration of headaches was 7.4 (8.3) years; mean frequency of headaches per week was 3.4 (2.4); and the intensity was 6 (2.4). The mean HADLI score was 26.2 (13.4), or 52%. There were no floor or ceiling effects for total score. The total Index Cronbach α was 0.96. The Principal Components Analysis identified one component which accounted for 75% of the variance. Conclusions The HADLI was created using theory and empirical-based methods. Face validity was assessed by focus group input and by first-level psychometrics. The HADLI has good face validity and is suitable for further reliability and validity testing. © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Source

Bolton P.S.,University of Newcastle | Bolton P.S.,Hunter Medical Research Institute | Budgell B.,Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2012

While spinal manipulation is widely seen as a reasonable treatment option for biomechanical disorders of the spine, such as neck pain and low back pain, the use of spinal manipulation to treat non-musculoskeletal complaints remains controversial. This controversy is due in part to the perception that there is no robust neurobiological rationale to justify using a biomechanical treatment of the spine to address a disorder of visceral function. This paper therefore looks at the physiological evidence that spinal manipulation can impact visceral function. A structured search was conducted, using PubMed and the Index to Chiropractic Literature, to construct of corpus of primary data studies in healthy human subjects of the effects of spinal manipulation on visceral function. The corpus of literature is not large, and the greatest number of papers concerns cardiovascular function. Authors often attribute visceral effects of spinal manipulation to somato-autonomic reflexes. While this is not unreasonable, little attention is paid to alternative mechanisms such as somato-humoural pathways. Thus, while the literature confirms that mechanical stimulation of the spine modulates some organ functions in some cohorts, a comprehensive neurobiological rationale for this general phenomenon has yet to appear. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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