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Newkirk R.W.,Canadian International Grains Institute | Ram J.I.,University of Saskatchewan | Hucl P.,University of Saskatchewan | Patterson C.A.,The Pathfinders Research and Management Ltd | Classen H.L.,University of Saskatchewan
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

A nutrient retention study and a growth study were conducted with broiler chickens to evaluate the nutritive value and potential toxicity of 2 hairless canary seed products-hulled seed and groats (cultivar CDC Maria), and one hairy hulled canary seed (cultivar Keet). Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed contained 24.5, 21.8, and 16.3% CP; 7.1, 5.8, and 6.6% ether extract; 1.5, 14.2, and 12.3% acid detergent fiber, and 3,867, 3,205 and 3,292 kcal/kg of AME n, on a DM basis, respectively. The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed protein comprised, respectively, 0.49, 0.33, and 0.33% lysine (DM basis), which was 79, 78, and 67% digestible (apparent ileal); 0.65, 0.53, and 0.60% cysteine (DM basis), which was 86, 87, and 85% apparent ileal digestible; and 0.40, 0.30, and 0.25% methionine (DM basis), which was 89, 90, and 86% apparent ileal digestible. In the second study, a 35-d feeding study with male broiler chickens was conducted. The canary seed products were compared with a Canadian Western Red Spring wheat control. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The test ingredients comprised 50% of the corn/soybean diets. The birds fed the hulled canary seed (hairy or hairless) had similar weight gain, feed intake, and G:F to those fed wheat. There were no statistically significant (P = 0.05) differences in the weights of the bursa, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, or the pancreas, nor was there any effect on serum lactate dehydrogenase or creatine kinase. The data indicated that feeding hulled canary seed increased the number of gizzard ulcers (P < 0.01). It was concluded that canary seed does not contain anti-nutritional components that negatively affect broiler performance or bird health. However, the canary seed hulls may damage the gizzard lining. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Bhuvaneswari K.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Fields P.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | White N.D.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Sarkar A.K.,Canadian International Grains Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2011

Semolina is used for the manufacture of pasta (long goods and short goods) and couscous and any contrasting colored specks adversely affect the appearance of the finished product. The specks result from wheat bran, diseased wheat, ergot or weed seeds. However, there is also the possibility that insect fragments will appear as specks. Specks are currently mostly determined by a manual process or by a speck counter in milling units. We compared the speck counts from an electronic speck counter (SPX Maztech Micrco Vision), acid hydrolysis and flotation (AOAC method 993.26), and near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging in semolina seeded with insect fragments (50-300 fragments/50 g) of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). There was a significant positive correlation between the number of insect fragments added and detected by all three methods. These results underline the importance of controlling insects in flour mills producing semolina, and also in plants producing pasta and couscous, to reduce speck counts in the finished products. © 2010.


Taylor C.G.,University of Manitoba | Noto A.D.,University of Manitoba | Stringer D.M.,University of Manitoba | Froese S.,University of Manitoba | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine the effects of dietary consumption of milled flaxseed or flaxseed oil on glycemic control, n-3 fatty acid status, anthropometrics, and adipokines in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design: Thirty-four participants were randomized into a parallel, controlled trial. Subjects: The participants were adults with type 2 diabetes (age 52.4 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 32.4 ± 1.0 kg/m2, n = 17 men and 17 women). Interventions: Participants consumed a selection of bakery products containing no flax (control group [CTL], n = 9), milled flaxseed (FXS, n = 13; 32 g/d), or flaxseed oil (FXO, n = 12; 13 g/d) daily for 12 weeks. The FXS and FXO groups received equivalent amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 7.4 g/day). Measures of Outcome: The primary outcome measures were fasting plasma hemoglobin A1c, glucose, insulin, and phospholipid fatty acid composition. The secondary outcome measures were fasting circulating leptin and adiponectin, as well as body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. Dietary intake assessment and calculations for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and quantified insulin sensitivity check were also completed. Results: The FXS and FXO groups had increases in plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids (ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], or decosapentaenoic acid [DPA], but not docosahexaenoic acid), and the FXO group had more EPA and DPA in plasma phospholipids compared to the FXS group. All groups had similar caloric intakes; however, the CTL group experienced a 4% weight gain compared to baseline (p < 0.05), while both flax groups had constant body weights during the study period. All other parameters, including glycemic control, were unchanged by dietary treatment. Conclusions: Milled FXS and FXO intake does not affect glycemic control in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Possible prevention of weight gain by flax consumption warrants further investigation.


Azarnia S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Boye J.I.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Warkentin T.,University of Saskatchewan | Malcolmson L.,Canadian International Grains Institute | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of cultivar, crop year and processing (dry milling, cooking and dehulling) on volatile flavour compounds of field peas using an optimised headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Significant differences in area counts of volatile compounds were observed between the different cultivars as well as in area counts of volatile compounds of each cultivar grown in different crop years. Results showed significant reduction in total area counts (TAC) of volatile compounds after cooking and dehulling the seeds. Major differences between whole seeds, cooked and dehulled seeds were found in aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones. Cooked-dehulled peas had the least TAC (7.83E±05) of the volatile compounds compared to the milled-whole peas (6.36E±06), cooked-whole peas (2.00E±06) and milled-dehulled peas (4.33E±06). The results suggest that volatile flavour compounds of different field peas were affected by the cultivar, crop year as well as processing conditions. © 2010.


Seneviratne R.W.,University of Alberta | Beltranena E.,University of Alberta | Newkirk R.W.,University of Alberta | Goonewardene L.A.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Cold-pressed canola cake is a coproduct of biodiesel production that contains more residual oil than expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted canola meal. Cold-pressed canola cake might be an attractive feedstuff for swine due to local availability from small plants. However, the nutritional quality and content of anti-nutritional factors of cold-pressed canola cake are poorly defined and vary with processing conditions. This experiment evaluated cold-pressed canola cake processed using 4 different conditions: a nonheated and heated barrel at slow and fast screw speed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Seven ileally cannulated barrows (26 kg of BW) were fed twice daily at 2.8 × maintenance diets containing either 44% of 1 of the 4 cold-pressed canola cake samples, expeller-pressed canola meal, canola seed, or an N-free diet in a 7 × 7 Latin square. The objectives were to measure the energy and AA digestibility and to calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content. Each 9-d experimental period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation, followed by 2-d feces and 2-d ileal digesta collections, and 7 observations per diet were obtained. Cold-pressed canola cake contained 41% CP, 16% ether extract, and 5 μmol of total glucosinolates/g (DM basis). Both apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract energy digestibility of energy in cold-pressed canola cake was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in heated vs. nonheated conditions and 8% greater (P < 0.05) in fast vs. slow screw speed without interaction, indicating that heat enhanced energy digestibility. The AID of energy of cold-pressed canola cake was 13 and 118% greater (P < 0.01) than expeller- pressed canola meal and canola seed, respectively. Heat and speed interacted (P < 0.05) for SID of AA of test ingredients, but effects were not consistent among AA. The DE and calculated NE content of cold-pressed canola cake was 0.73 and 0.52 Mcal/kg greater (P = 0.001; DM basis), respectively, than expeller-pressed canola meal and did not differ from canola seed. Coldpressed canola cake averaged 4.17 Mcal of DE/kg, 2.84 Mcal of NE/kg, 0.87% SID Lys, 0.46% SID Met, and 0.79% SID Thr (DM basis). In conclusion, processing conditions greatly affected the digestible nutrient content of cold-pressed canola cake. Content of residual ether extract was an important determinant of the energy value of cold-press canola cake, whereas residual glucosinolates did not seem to hamper nutrient digestibility. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Seneviratne R.W.,University of Alberta | Young M.G.,Gowans Feed Consulting | Beltranena E.,University of Alberta | Goonewardene L.A.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Expeller-pressed (EP) canola meal contains more residual oil than solvent-extracted canola meal and might be an attractive feedstuff for swine, but it has been poorly characterized. In Exp. 1, six ilealcannulated barrows (36 kg of BW) were fed at 3× maintenance either a 44% EP canola meal diet or a N-free diet in a crossover design to measure energy and AA digestibility and calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content, with 6 observations per diet. Each period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation and a 2-d feces and 3-d digesta collection. The EP canola meal contained (% of DM) 38.5% CP, 13.3% ether extract, 2.42% Lys, 1.54% Thr, 0.62% Met, and 23.2 μmol/g of glucosinolates. Apparent total tract energy digestibility was 75.0% and the DE and predicted NE content were 3.77 and 2.55 Mcal/kg (in DM), respectively. The SID AA content (% of DM) was 1.77% Lys, 1.04% Thr, and 0.52% Met. In Exp. 2, a total of 1,100 pigs (25 kg of BW) housed in 50 pens were fed 5 dietary regimens with 0, 7.5, 15, and 22.5% or decreasing amounts (22.5, 15, 7.5, and 0%, respectively) of EP canola meal over 4 phases to validate performance and carcass characteristics. Diets were formulated to contain equal NE:SID Lys for each growth phase (g/Mcal;4.04, d 0 to 25; 3.63, d 26 to 50; 3.23, d 51 to 77; 2.83, d 78 to 90). At slaughter, carcass characteristics were measured for all pigs, and jowl fat was sampled for 2 pigs per pen. For d 51 to 90, the 22.5% EP canola meal regimen was reduced to 18% (22.5/18%) because of decreased ADFI in phases 1 and 2. Overall (d 0 to 90), increasing dietary EP canola meal linearly decreased (P < 0.001) ADG and ADFI and linearly increased (P < 0.01) G:F. For 0 and 22.5/18% EP canola meal, respectively, ADG was 978 and 931 g/d, ADFI was 2.77 and 2.58 kg/d, and G:F was 0.366 and 0.378. Increasing dietary EP canola meal did not alter the carcass backfat thickness, loin depth, or jowl fat fatty acid profile. Pigs fed 22.5/18% EP canola meal reached slaughter weight 3 d after (P < 0.05) pigs fed 0% EP canola meal. In summary, EP canola meal provided adequate energy and AA; however, ADG was reduced by 3 g/d per 1% of EP canola meal inclusion, likely because of increased dietary glucosinolates. Thus, the amount of EP canola meal included in swine diets should be targeted to an expected growth performance and carcass quality. Finally, diets formulated to contain an equal NE and SID AA content did not entirely eliminate the risks for reduced growth performance associated with inclusion of an alternative feedstuff. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.


Borsuk Y.,University of Manitoba | Arntfield S.,University of Manitoba | Lukow O.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Swallow K.,Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development | Malcolmson L.,Canadian International Grains Institute
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: To increase pulse consumption, pita bread was fortified with pulse flours milled from green lentils, navy beans and pinto beans, which were ground to produce fine and coarse flours. Pita breads were prepared using composite flours containing pulse flours (25, 50, 75%) and wheat flour or 100% pulse flours and adjusting the amount of water required for mixing based on farinograph water absorption. Pita bread quality was evaluated according to diameter, pocket height, specific loaf volume, texture and crust colour. Results: Blends made from pulse flours with coarse particle size showed higher rates of water absorption. All composite flours and 100% pulse flours produced pitas with pockets, confirming their suitability for this product. Crust colour of pitas was affected less by navy bean flour than by lentil flour. Pita breads made with pinto bean flour were superior in texture. Overall, navy and pinto bean flours appeared more suitable for pita bread. Flours with coarse particle sizes produced pitas with better colour and texture. Sensory parameters of pitas containing 25% coarse pinto or navy bean flour were as good as or better than those from the wheat control. Conclusion: Acceptable pita breads can be made using pulse flours, although the substitution level is limited to 25%. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.


Ma Z.,McGill University | Ma Z.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Boye J.I.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Simpson B.K.,McGill University | And 3 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2011

Pulses are rich in nutrients. The existence of anti-nutritional components and the length of time required for preparation have, however, limited their frequency of use compared to recommended intake levels. Anti-nutritional components in pulses can be largely removed by heat treatment. Additionally pre-treatment of pulses with heat and processing of seeds into flour could further enhance their use by decreasing processing and preparation times. In this study, trypsin inhibitor activity, functional properties, and microstructural characteristics of flours prepared from different varieties of lentil, chickpea, and pea as affected by roasting and boiling were evaluated. Both thermal treatments resulted in significant reduction (p<. 0.05) in trypsin inhibitor activity ranging from - 95.6% to - 37.8%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the roasted pulse flours had similar microstructure (i.e., starch granule and protein matrix structure) to the raw samples. For the pre-boiled flours, amorphous flakes were observed by SEM with no presence of intact starch granules. This is likely due to gelatinization of starch during cooking. Interestingly, flours treated by boiling exhibited significantly higher (p<. 0.05) fat binding capacity, water holding capacity, and gelling capacity, while protein solubility was significantly reduced compared to the raw and roasted pulse flours. Overall, thermal treatments either had no impact or impacted to different extents the emulsifying and foaming properties of the flours. Our results suggest that thermally-treated pulse flours may have very good potential to be used as value-added food ingredients for food applications due to their improved nutritional value and, in some instances, superior functionality. © 2010.


Azarnia S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Boye J.I.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Warkentin T.,University of Saskatchewan | Malcolmson L.,Canadian International Grains Institute
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The impact of storage conditions on volatile flavour profile of field pea cultivars was evaluated. Seeds were kept at 4°C, room temperature (approximately 22°C) and 37°C for 12months. Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for extraction and identification of volatile flavour compounds (VFCs). Significant (P<0.01) differences in the concentration of VFCs were observed during storage. All cultivars kept at 22 and 37°C had higher mean value of aldehydes compared to those kept at 4°C. Alcohols, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes and esters were higher in samples stored at 4°C compared to those at higher temperatures. 1-Hexanol, hexanal, styrene, 2-butanone, dimethyl sulphide, 3-carene, ethyl acetate and 2, 3-diethyl-5-methyl pyrazine were the most abundant compounds found in peas. Results from this study could be useful in identifying improved conditions of storage to enhance flavour properties of peas. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2011 International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


PubMed | McGill University, Food Processing Development Center, Shaanxi Normal University, Agriculture and Agri Food Canada and Canadian International Grains Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016

Salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours are novel products. A three-factor face-centered central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effect of pulse flour concentration (3.5%, 7%, 10.5% w/w), egg yolk concentration (3%, 5%, 7% w/w) and oil concentration (20%, 35%, 50% w/w) on the rheological and color characteristics of salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours.The consistency coefficient m, plateau modulus G(N)(0), recoverable strain Q(t) and color values were all affected by the concentrations of pulse flours used. Scanning electron microscopy showed that dressings with lower oil and egg yolk contents had a less densely packed network compared with dressings with higher oil and egg yolk contents. Sensory results were most promising for salad dressings supplemented with the whole green lentil, yellow pea with low flour content, and chickpea with high oil content.This study should be useful for designing novel types of salad dressings to meet market requirements as well as helping to increase pulse consumption.

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