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Bhuvaneswari K.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Fields P.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | White N.D.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Sarkar A.K.,Canadian International Grains Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2011

Semolina is used for the manufacture of pasta (long goods and short goods) and couscous and any contrasting colored specks adversely affect the appearance of the finished product. The specks result from wheat bran, diseased wheat, ergot or weed seeds. However, there is also the possibility that insect fragments will appear as specks. Specks are currently mostly determined by a manual process or by a speck counter in milling units. We compared the speck counts from an electronic speck counter (SPX Maztech Micrco Vision), acid hydrolysis and flotation (AOAC method 993.26), and near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging in semolina seeded with insect fragments (50-300 fragments/50 g) of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). There was a significant positive correlation between the number of insect fragments added and detected by all three methods. These results underline the importance of controlling insects in flour mills producing semolina, and also in plants producing pasta and couscous, to reduce speck counts in the finished products. © 2010.

Newkirk R.W.,Canadian International Grains Institute | Ram J.I.,University of Saskatchewan | Hucl P.,University of Saskatchewan | Patterson C.A.,The Pathfinders Research and Management Ltd | Classen H.L.,University of Saskatchewan
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

A nutrient retention study and a growth study were conducted with broiler chickens to evaluate the nutritive value and potential toxicity of 2 hairless canary seed products-hulled seed and groats (cultivar CDC Maria), and one hairy hulled canary seed (cultivar Keet). Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed contained 24.5, 21.8, and 16.3% CP; 7.1, 5.8, and 6.6% ether extract; 1.5, 14.2, and 12.3% acid detergent fiber, and 3,867, 3,205 and 3,292 kcal/kg of AME n, on a DM basis, respectively. The hairless canary seed groat, hairless hulled canary seed, and the hairy hulled canary seed protein comprised, respectively, 0.49, 0.33, and 0.33% lysine (DM basis), which was 79, 78, and 67% digestible (apparent ileal); 0.65, 0.53, and 0.60% cysteine (DM basis), which was 86, 87, and 85% apparent ileal digestible; and 0.40, 0.30, and 0.25% methionine (DM basis), which was 89, 90, and 86% apparent ileal digestible. In the second study, a 35-d feeding study with male broiler chickens was conducted. The canary seed products were compared with a Canadian Western Red Spring wheat control. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 groups of 4 birds each). The test ingredients comprised 50% of the corn/soybean diets. The birds fed the hulled canary seed (hairy or hairless) had similar weight gain, feed intake, and G:F to those fed wheat. There were no statistically significant (P = 0.05) differences in the weights of the bursa, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, or the pancreas, nor was there any effect on serum lactate dehydrogenase or creatine kinase. The data indicated that feeding hulled canary seed increased the number of gizzard ulcers (P < 0.01). It was concluded that canary seed does not contain anti-nutritional components that negatively affect broiler performance or bird health. However, the canary seed hulls may damage the gizzard lining. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Seneviratne R.W.,University of Alberta | Young M.G.,Gowans Feed Consulting | Beltranena E.,University of Alberta | Goonewardene L.A.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Expeller-pressed (EP) canola meal contains more residual oil than solvent-extracted canola meal and might be an attractive feedstuff for swine, but it has been poorly characterized. In Exp. 1, six ilealcannulated barrows (36 kg of BW) were fed at 3× maintenance either a 44% EP canola meal diet or a N-free diet in a crossover design to measure energy and AA digestibility and calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content, with 6 observations per diet. Each period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation and a 2-d feces and 3-d digesta collection. The EP canola meal contained (% of DM) 38.5% CP, 13.3% ether extract, 2.42% Lys, 1.54% Thr, 0.62% Met, and 23.2 μmol/g of glucosinolates. Apparent total tract energy digestibility was 75.0% and the DE and predicted NE content were 3.77 and 2.55 Mcal/kg (in DM), respectively. The SID AA content (% of DM) was 1.77% Lys, 1.04% Thr, and 0.52% Met. In Exp. 2, a total of 1,100 pigs (25 kg of BW) housed in 50 pens were fed 5 dietary regimens with 0, 7.5, 15, and 22.5% or decreasing amounts (22.5, 15, 7.5, and 0%, respectively) of EP canola meal over 4 phases to validate performance and carcass characteristics. Diets were formulated to contain equal NE:SID Lys for each growth phase (g/Mcal;4.04, d 0 to 25; 3.63, d 26 to 50; 3.23, d 51 to 77; 2.83, d 78 to 90). At slaughter, carcass characteristics were measured for all pigs, and jowl fat was sampled for 2 pigs per pen. For d 51 to 90, the 22.5% EP canola meal regimen was reduced to 18% (22.5/18%) because of decreased ADFI in phases 1 and 2. Overall (d 0 to 90), increasing dietary EP canola meal linearly decreased (P < 0.001) ADG and ADFI and linearly increased (P < 0.01) G:F. For 0 and 22.5/18% EP canola meal, respectively, ADG was 978 and 931 g/d, ADFI was 2.77 and 2.58 kg/d, and G:F was 0.366 and 0.378. Increasing dietary EP canola meal did not alter the carcass backfat thickness, loin depth, or jowl fat fatty acid profile. Pigs fed 22.5/18% EP canola meal reached slaughter weight 3 d after (P < 0.05) pigs fed 0% EP canola meal. In summary, EP canola meal provided adequate energy and AA; however, ADG was reduced by 3 g/d per 1% of EP canola meal inclusion, likely because of increased dietary glucosinolates. Thus, the amount of EP canola meal included in swine diets should be targeted to an expected growth performance and carcass quality. Finally, diets formulated to contain an equal NE and SID AA content did not entirely eliminate the risks for reduced growth performance associated with inclusion of an alternative feedstuff. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Seneviratne R.W.,University of Alberta | Beltranena E.,University of Alberta | Newkirk R.W.,University of Alberta | Goonewardene L.A.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

Cold-pressed canola cake is a coproduct of biodiesel production that contains more residual oil than expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted canola meal. Cold-pressed canola cake might be an attractive feedstuff for swine due to local availability from small plants. However, the nutritional quality and content of anti-nutritional factors of cold-pressed canola cake are poorly defined and vary with processing conditions. This experiment evaluated cold-pressed canola cake processed using 4 different conditions: a nonheated and heated barrel at slow and fast screw speed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Seven ileally cannulated barrows (26 kg of BW) were fed twice daily at 2.8 × maintenance diets containing either 44% of 1 of the 4 cold-pressed canola cake samples, expeller-pressed canola meal, canola seed, or an N-free diet in a 7 × 7 Latin square. The objectives were to measure the energy and AA digestibility and to calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content. Each 9-d experimental period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation, followed by 2-d feces and 2-d ileal digesta collections, and 7 observations per diet were obtained. Cold-pressed canola cake contained 41% CP, 16% ether extract, and 5 μmol of total glucosinolates/g (DM basis). Both apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract energy digestibility of energy in cold-pressed canola cake was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in heated vs. nonheated conditions and 8% greater (P < 0.05) in fast vs. slow screw speed without interaction, indicating that heat enhanced energy digestibility. The AID of energy of cold-pressed canola cake was 13 and 118% greater (P < 0.01) than expeller- pressed canola meal and canola seed, respectively. Heat and speed interacted (P < 0.05) for SID of AA of test ingredients, but effects were not consistent among AA. The DE and calculated NE content of cold-pressed canola cake was 0.73 and 0.52 Mcal/kg greater (P = 0.001; DM basis), respectively, than expeller-pressed canola meal and did not differ from canola seed. Coldpressed canola cake averaged 4.17 Mcal of DE/kg, 2.84 Mcal of NE/kg, 0.87% SID Lys, 0.46% SID Met, and 0.79% SID Thr (DM basis). In conclusion, processing conditions greatly affected the digestible nutrient content of cold-pressed canola cake. Content of residual ether extract was an important determinant of the energy value of cold-press canola cake, whereas residual glucosinolates did not seem to hamper nutrient digestibility. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Ma Z.,Shaanxi Normal University | Boye J.I.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Swallow K.,Food Processing Development Center | Malcolmson L.,Canadian International Grains Institute | Simpson B.K.,McGill University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours are novel products. A three-factor face-centered central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effect of pulse flour concentration (3.5%, 7%, 10.5% w/w), egg yolk concentration (3%, 5%, 7% w/w) and oil concentration (20%, 35%, 50% w/w) on the rheological and color characteristics of salad dressings supplemented with pulse flours. RESULTS: The consistency coefficient m, plateau modulus GN0, recoverable strain Q(t) and color values were all affected by the concentrations of pulse flours used. Scanning electron microscopy showed that dressings with lower oil and egg yolk contents had a less densely packed network compared with dressings with higher oil and egg yolk contents. Sensory results were most promising for salad dressings supplemented with the whole green lentil, yellow pea with low flour content, and chickpea with high oil content. CONCLUSION: This study should be useful for designing novel types of salad dressings to meet market requirements as well as helping to increase pulse consumption. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

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