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Moniem T.A.,Canadian International College CIC
Journal of Modern Optics | Year: 2015

The paper introduces a novel all optical active high 2 × 4 decoder based on 2D photonic crystals (PhC) of silicon rods with permittivity of ε = 10.1 × 10-11 farad/m. The main structure of optical decoder is designed using a combination of five nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonator, set of T-type waveguide, and line defect of Y and T branch splitters. The proposed structure has two logic input ports, four output ports, and one bias input port. The total size of the proposed 2 × 4 decoder is equal to 40 μm × 38 μm. The PhC structure has a square lattice of silicon rod with refractive index of 3.39 in air. The overall design and the results are discussed through the realization and the numerically simulation to confirm its operation and feasibility. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Bahgaat N.K.,Canadian International College CIC | El-Sayed M.I.,Al - Azhar University of Egypt | Moustafa M.A.,Cairo University | Bendary F.M.,Cairo University
Studies in Computational Intelligence | Year: 2015

The main objective of Load Frequency Control (LFC) is to regulate the power output of the electric generator within an area in response to changes in system frequency and tie-line loading. Thus the LFC helps in maintaining the scheduled system frequency and tie-line power interchange with the other areas within the prescribed limits. Most LFCs are primarily composed of an integral controller. The integrator gain is set to a level that compromises between fast transient recovery and low overshoot in the dynamic response of the overall system. This type of controller is slow and does not allow the controller designer to take into account possible changes in operating conditions and non-linearities in the generator unit. Moreover, it lacks robustness. This chapter studies LFC in two areas power system using PID controller. In this chapter, PID parameters are tuned using different tuning techniques. The overshoots and settling times with the proposed controllers are better than the outputs of the conventional PID controllers. This chapter uses MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Simulations are done by using the same PID parameters for the two different areas because it gives a better performance for the system frequency response than the case of using two different sets of PID parameters for the two areas. The used methods in this chapter are: (a) Particle SwarmOptimization,(b) Adaptive Weight Particle SwarmOptimization, (c) Adaptive Acceleration Coefficients based PSO (AACPSO) and (d) Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The comparison has been carried out for these different controllers for two areas power system, the study presents advanced techniques for Load Frequency Control. These proposed techniques are based on Artificial Intelligence. It gives promising results. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Moniem T.A.,Canadian International College CIC
Optical and Quantum Electronics | Year: 2015

The photonic crystals (PhC) draw significant attention to build all optical logic devices and considered one of the solutions for the opto-electronic bottleneck via speed and size. The paper presents a novel all optical SR flip flop memory based on two optical NOR gates using 2D PhC. The design of optical Flip Flop is based on four nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonator and T-type waveguide. The total size of the proposed optical memory flip flop is equal to 30 μm × 30 μm. The structure has lattice constant ‘a’ is equal to 630 nm and bandgap range from 0.32 to 044. The flip flop design has a switching time in few Picoseconds and low power input of 50 mW. The PhC structure has a square lattice of silicon rod with refractive index of 3.39 in air. The overall design and the results are discussed through the experimental implementation and the numerically simulation to confirm its operation and feasibility. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015.

Moniem T.A.,Canadian International College CIC
Fiber and Integrated Optics | Year: 2016

This article presents a methodology for an integrated Bragg grating using an alloy of GaAs, AlGaAs, and InGaAs with a controllable refractive index to obtain an adaptive Bragg grating suitable for many applications on optical processing and adaptive control systems, such as limitation and filtering. The refractive index of a Bragg grating is controlled by using an external electric field for controlling periodic modulation of the refractive index of the active waveguide region. The designed Bragg grating has refractive indices programmed by using that external electric field. This article presents two approaches for designing the controllable refractive indices active region of a Bragg grating. The first approach is based on the modification of a planar micro-strip structure of the iGaAs traveling wave as the active region, and the second is based on the modification of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots of an alloy from GaAs and InGaAs with a GaP traveling wave. The overall design and results are discussed through numerical simulation by using the finite-difference time-domain, plane wave expansion, and opto-wave simulation methods to confirm its operation and feasibility. © 2016 Taylor & Francis

Tantawy O.A.E.,Zagazig University | Kozae A.M.,Tanta University | Mustafa H.I.,Zagazig University | Kandil S.A.,Canadian International College CIC
Life Science Journal | Year: 2013

Hybrid methods are important recent approaches for studying uncertainty of concepts and decisions in information systems. For example, combining rough sets and fuzzy sets, rough sets and genetic algorithm, rough sets and topology among other approaches. In this work, we introduce the notion of relative double sets and give examples and investigate some of its properties and characterizations. The suggested type of double sets is constructed using information system and is connected with uncertain concepts in information systems. The class of relative double sets related to a decision set in decision systems is used in finding more accurate approximations for uncertain concepts in general and specially for decision sets. Consequently, decision makers and takers can have new choices for more accurate decisions.

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