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Alkady G.I.,American University in Cairo | AbdelKader A.,American University in Cairo | Daoud R.M.,American University in Cairo | Amer H.H.,American University in Cairo | El-Araby N.A.,Canadian International College
Proceedings of 2016 11th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Systems, ICCES 2016 | Year: 2016

Fault-Tolerance is quickly becoming a very important issue in the design of industrial automation systems. This paper addresses this issue in the context of temporary failures occurring in harsh industrial environments. The Fault-Tolerant design of sensors and controllers is investigated for both the In-Loop and Sensor-To-Actuator architectures. Processing is implemented on FPGAS whenever possible. Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) is used to implement sensors for fast varying applications while Temporal Redundancy (TR) is used for sensors for slow varying applications in order to reduce cost without affecting system reliability. Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) is used for fault recovery. Reliability models are developed for all Fault-Tolerant blocks to help system designers with the choice of the Fault-Tolerant techniques to be implemented. Two case studies are carried out with different numbers of fast and slow sensors. System reliabilities are calculated for both conventional and hybrid NCS systems. Results show that the proposed technique results in a cost-effective system at the expense of a very slight decrease in reliability. © 2016 IEEE.

Alkady G.I.,American University in Cairo | El-Araby N.A.,Canadian International College | Amer H.H.,American University in Cairo | Madian A.H.,Egypt Atomic Energy Authority
Proceedings of the Biennial Baltic Electronics Conference, BEC | Year: 2015

Nowadays, FPGAs play a great role in electronic circuits design especially in implementing critical applications. As a result, the need for adding fault-tolerance to FPGAs becomes very important. In this paper, a fault-tolerant technique and associated modifications on FPGA architecture are proposed. This technique can detect and recover from open faults in programmable interconnects. It was successfully simulated using an FPGA-based simulator. © 2014 IEEE.

Eldessouky A.S.,Canadian International College | Eldessouky A.S.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Gabbar H.A.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering, SEGE 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper presents Microgrid (MG) optimization using Genetic Algorithm. The MG model is based on renewable energy sources (wind turbine) and gas generator. The algorithm objective is determine the optimal size of combined wind and gas generator to satisfy a given Key Performance Indices (KPIs). The selected KPIs describe both dynamic and static performance of MG. The KPIs describing the dynamic performance includes Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and power factor (PF) in presence of disturbance and load variation. The static KPIs includes power shortage, initial cost, running cost and CO2 emission. The two KPIs groups (dynamic and static) have different time frame. The dynamic KPIs are examined by applying load disturbance to MG and observe its effect over few seconds (according to MG average time constant). The static KPIs are examined by applying load and power generation profiles during one full year period. Hence, it is not feasible to combine both static and dynamic simulation using one model. Accordingly, to allow one optimization process based on static and dynamic KPIs, two simulation models have been created with two separate simulation environments. The static simulation uses simplified efficiency model of the power components presented in MG and the system is subjected to load and wind profiles to evaluate the static KPIs. The dynamic simulation uses detailed dynamic model with load disturbance. The optimization process utilizes a single fitness function which combines the dynamic and static PKIs with weighting factors. Results of optimization are presented and the KPIs of the optimized MG is provided. © 2015 IEEE.

Eldessouky A.S.,Canadian International College | Eldessouky A.S.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Gabbar H.A.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology
International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering, SEGE 2015 | Year: 2015

Maintaining voltage level stability of islanded mode Micro Grids (MG) is a challenging objective due to the limited power flow between sources and loads. The objective of this work is to enhance the dynamic performance of islanded mode Micro grid in the presence of load disturbance using static VAR compensator (SVC). The contribution of this work is the implementation of PI fuzzy model reference learning controller (FMRLC) to SVC control loop. The control algorithm compensates for nonlinearity possessed by MG where fuzzy membership functions and implication imbedded in both controller and inverse model that achieve better presentation of both uncertainty and nonlinearity of the power system dynamics. Hence, MG keeps desired performance as required irrespective of the operating condition. In addition, learning capabilities of the proposed control algorithm compensates for grid parameter variation even with inadequate information about mathematical presentation of load dynamics. The reference model was designed to reject bus voltage disturbance, created by load and wind variation, with achievable desired performance. Accordingly, SVC with fuzzy controller was able to reject bus voltage disturbance by matching closely the reference model performance. Simulations were carried out to study the steady-state and transient performance of MG in islanded mode. The MG is composed of a PV bus supplied by wind turbine and induction generator, a PQ bus connected to nonlinear dynamic load and linear load, a single distribution line connecting the two buses, and SVC. The proposed control algorithm robustness was tested by providing load disturbance in different operating conditions and observing the system dynamic performance. The performance of the proposed controller is compared to a conventional PID controller using overshoot, transient oscillation, Integral-of-Time Multiplied Absolute Error (ITMAE), and integral square error (ISE) as performance parameters. Both ITMAE and ISE values for the proposed controller were much less than conventional PID controller. In addition, for the proposed controller, ITMAE values sustained stable increase while PID controller ITMAE values increased exponentially. These results indicates the progress achieved by proposed controller to enhance disturbance rejection with time due to learning process. © 2015 IEEE.

Farag A.M.,Egyptian Armed Forces | Sayed M.M.A.,Canadian International College | Abbas W.,Arab Academy for Science and Technology
IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings | Year: 2016

For many terrorist organizations, chemical weapons might be considered an ideal choice for a mode of attack, if they are available: they are cheap, relatively accessible, and easy to transport. A skilled chemist can readily synthesize most chemical agents if the precursors are available. Chemical warfare (CW) is different from the use of conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive effects of chemical weapons are not primarily due to any explosive force. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons. Discovery of nerve agents in Germany led to the availability of a class of compounds at least one order of magnitude more lethal than previously known where death might occur in a matter of minutes instead of hours. Nerve agent refers to two groups of highly toxic chemical compounds that generally are organic esters of substituted phosphoric acid (G-agents, V-agents). The three most active G-agents are tabun, (Chemical Agent Symbol GA), Sarin (GB), CH3POFOCH (CH3); and Soman (GD). The G-agent liquids under ordinary atmospheric conditions have sufficiently high volatility to permit dissemination in vapor form. They are generally colorless, odorless or nearly so, and are readily absorbable through not only the lungs and eyes but also the skin and intestinal tract without producing any irritation or other sensation on the part of the exposed individual. These agents are sufficiently potent so that even a brief exposure may be fatal. Death may occur in 1-10 min, or be delayed for 1-2 h depending on the concentration of the agent. The objective of this paper is to study the best ventilation system with both Under-Floor Displacement and personalized ventilation (PV) with GB injection in the aircraft cabin of the economy section of a Boeing 767 airplane during cruise and passengers protection by air curtain design for both steady and transient states. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling techniques using the ANSYS FLUENT 15.0 package solved the continuity, momentum, energy, and species transport equations, in addition to k-ϵ model equations for turbulence closure. Mesh sizes used in the present work exceeded 6,000,000 mesh volumes in one case. GB mole fraction, temperature, velocity Contours are obtained to realize the air curtain performance for the optimum passengers protection. Air curtain is good for preventing spread of GB, but of course increase temperature and decrease thermal comfort inside the aircraft cabin because of the higher velocity, so it is used only for emergency cases until the aircraft landed. © 2016 IEEE.

Elhadidi M.,Higher Technological Institute | Helal M.,Canadian International College | Nassar O.,Ain Shams University | Arafa M.,American University in Cairo | Zeyada Y.,Cairo University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Bistable systems have recently been employed for vibration energy harvesting owing to their favorable dynamic characteristics and desirable response for wideband excitation. In this paper, we investigate the use of bistable harvesters to extract energy from spinning wheels. The proposed harvester consists of a piezoelectric cantilever beam that is mounted on a rigid spinning hub and carries a tip mass in the form of a permanent magnet. Magnetic repulsion forces from an opposite magnet cause the beam to possess two stable equilibrium positions. Inter-well lead-lag oscillations caused by rotation in a vertical plane provide a good source for energy extraction. The design offers frequency tuning, as the centrifugal forces strain the harvester, thereby increasing its natural frequency to cope with a variable rotational speed. This has applications in self-powered sensors mounted on spinning wheels, such as tire pressure monitoring sensors. An effort is made to select the design parameters to enable the harvester to exhibit favorable inter-well oscillations across a range of rotational speeds for enhanced energy harvesting. Findings of the present work are verified both numerically and experimentally. © 2015 SPIE.

Medhat W.,Canadian International College | Hassan A.,Ain Shams University | Korashy H.,Ain Shams University
Ain Shams Engineering Journal | Year: 2014

Sentiment Analysis (SA) is an ongoing field of research in text mining field. SA is the computational treatment of opinions, sentiments and subjectivity of text. This survey paper tackles a comprehensive overview of the last update in this field. Many recently proposed algorithms' enhancements and various SA applications are investigated and presented briefly in this survey. These articles are categorized according to their contributions in the various SA techniques. The related fields to SA (transfer learning, emotion detection, and building resources) that attracted researchers recently are discussed. The main target of this survey is to give nearly full image of SA techniques and the related fields with brief details. The main contributions of this paper include the sophisticated categorizations of a large number of recent articles and the illustration of the recent trend of research in the sentiment analysis and its related areas. © 2014 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

Elsayed A.K.,Comfort and Driving Assistance Systems | Hamed S.M.,Canadian International College | Madian A.H.,Egypt Atomic Energy Authority | Amer H.H.,American University in Cairo | Abdelhalim M.B.,American University in Cairo
Proceedings of 2016 International Conference on Electrical and Information Technologies, ICEIT 2016 | Year: 2016

Nowadays, Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) has become the main block of mixed signal circuits. Hence, testing ADC circuits is of great interest. In this paper, a low cost structural test is developed for the Time Domain ADC (TD-ADC). The TD-ADC consists of a Voltage-to-Time Converter (VTC) and a Vernier Time-to-Digital Converter (Vernier TDC). The circuit under test is used in high energy physics, spectroscopy, medical imaging, radiation sensors, and environmental sensors. It is shown that only two test values are required to detect 98.1% of catastrophic faults in the fault set. The LTSpice simulator on 45nm CMOS model provided from MOSIS was used in the analysis. © 2016 IEEE.

Abd Elhamid M.,American University in Cairo | Emara M.M.,Canadian International College | Salem H.G.,American University in Cairo
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance | Year: 2014

Fabrication and processing of 99.7% purity aluminum powder reinforced with 0, 5, 10% volume fractions NiAl intermetallic metal matrix composites were conducted. The mechanically alloyed nanostructured NiAl was mixed by both regular and high energy ball milling techniques. Powders of NiAl employed for reinforcement were milled for 18 and 31 h, and therefore denoted as NiAl18 and NiAl31, respectively. The mixed powders were consolidated via a combination of cold pressing followed by hot extrusion at 480 °C for 1 h at a reduction ratio 4:1. Hardness, tensile properties, and fracture behavior of the extruded composite powders were evaluated. Structural evolution of the milled composite powders was investigated before and after extrusion using optical microscopy, field emission scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, particle type identification was carried out via energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Introducing NiAl31 (0.8 μm) enhanced the mechanical properties of the composites compared to NiAl18 (1.0 μm). Moreover, powders milling enhanced the tensile properties post hot extrusion compared to the mixed conditions due to the enhanced reinforcement distribution and bonding with the Al matrices. Hot extruded milled composite powders of Al reinforced with 10% NiAl31 produced nanostructured high-angle grain boundary structure <200 nm. © 2014 ASM International.

Abd Al-Aziz A.M.,Canadian International College | Gheith M.,Cairo University | Sayed A.F.,French Institute of Oriental Archaeology
Egyptian Informatics Journal | Year: 2011

Texture analysis forms the basis of object recognition and classification in several domains, one of these domains is historical document manuscripts because the manuscripts hold our culture heritage and also large numbers of undated manuscripts exist. This paper presents results for historical document classification of old Arabic manuscripts using texture analysis and a segmentation free approach. The main objective is to discriminate between historical documents of different writing styles to three different ages: Contemporary (Modern) Age, Ottoman Age and Mamluk Age. This classification depends on a Spatial Gray-level Dependence (SGLD) technique which provides eight distinct texture features for each sample document. We applied Stepwise Discriminant Analysis and Multiple discriminant analysis methods to decrease the dimensionality of features and extract training vector features from samples. To classify historical documents into three main historical age classes the decision tree classification is applied. The system has been tested on 48 Arabic historical manuscripts documents from the Dar Al-Kotob Al-Masria Library. Our results so far yield 95.83% correct classification for the historical Arabic documents. © 2011 Faculty of Computers and Information, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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