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Canadian Institutes of Health Research is the major federal agency responsible for funding health research in Canada. It is the successor to the Medical Research Council of Canada. It aims to create new health knowledge, and to translate that knowledge from the research setting into real world applications. The CIHR was created by an Act of Parliament on June 7, 2000; bringing together existing government activities. In 2009-2010, CIHR's budget was just over 1 billion dollars.CIHR is a Departmental Corporation listed in Schedule II of the Financial Administration Act. As an arms length agency of government, it is accountable to Parliament through the Minister of Health.CIHR is managed by the Prime Minister and the Governing Council, who are assisted by various Standing and Advisory Committees. The current appointed president of CIHR is Dr. Alain Beaudet.CIHR consists of 13 "virtual" institutes, each headed by a Scientific Director and assisted by an Institute Advisory Board. They work together to shape a national health research agenda for Canada. The institutes bring together researchers, health professionals and policy-makers from voluntary health organizations, provincial government agencies, international research organizations and industry and patient groups from across the country with a shared interest in improving the health of Canadians.The work of the institutes embraces the four pillars of health research: biomedical; clinical; research respecting health systems and services; and the social, cultural and environmental factors that affect the health of populations.A major challenge for the institutes is to forge relationships across disciplines to stimulate integrative, multifaceted research agendas that respond to society's health priorities while adhering to the highest ethical standards.CIHR supports more than 14,000 researchers and researchers in training as part of the federal government's investment in health research. The peer review process is a vital part of CIHR. Review by panels of peers from the research community ensures proposals approved for funding by CIHR meet international accepted standards of scientific excellence.In 2008 CIHR also organised a series of Café Scientifique events across Canada.CIHR is supplying funding for PubMed Central Canada in partnership with the United States National Library of Medicine and Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information .In November 2009, controversy arose over the appointment of a senior executive of Pfizer to CIHR's governing council. Wikipedia.

Heaman M.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Birth | Year: 2010

Background: The increasing pregnancy rate at advanced maternal age is contemporaneous with the increasing rate of cesarean birth. Several studies have found that advanced maternal age is a risk factor for cesarean birth. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the relationship between advanced maternal age and cesarean birth among nulliparous and multiparous women. Methods: To identify relevant studies, we searched the literature for articles published from January 1, 1995 to March 1, 2008, using Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and CINAHL. We also hand-searched the bibliographies of retrieved articles to identify additional related studies. We included all cohort studies and all case-control studies that examined this association in developed countries. The Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager software (5.0) was used to summarize the data. Results: Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. All studies demonstrated an increased risk of cesarean birth among women at advanced maternal age compared with younger women, for both nulliparas and multiparas (relative risk varied from 1.39 to 2.76). Because we found extreme heterogeneity (both statistical and clinical) among the included studies, we did not provide a pooled estimate of the risk of cesarean birth. Conclusions: All included studies illustrated an increased risk of cesarean birth among older women. Fifteen studies adjusted this association for potential confounders, which suggests that a valid and independent association is likely to exist between advanced maternal age and cesarean birth. However, the associated factors for this increased risk are not totally understood in the literature. (BIRTH 37:3 September 2010) © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Snell R.R.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Peer review represents the primary mechanism used by funding agencies to allocate financial support and by journals to select manuscripts for publication, yet recent Cochrane reviews determined literature on peer review best practice is sparse. Key to improving the process are reduction of inherent vulnerability to high degree of randomness and, from an economic perspective, limiting both the substantial indirect costs related to reviewer time invested and direct administrative costs to funding agencies, publishers and research institutions. Use of additional reviewers per application may increase reliability and decision consistency, but adds to overall cost and burden. The optimal number of reviewers per application, while not known, is thought to vary with accuracy of judges or evaluation methods. Here I use bootstrapping of replicated peer review data from a Post-doctoral Fellowships competition to show that five reviewers per application represents a practical optimum which avoids large random effects evident when fewer reviewers are used, a point where additional reviewers at increasing cost provides only diminishing incremental gains in chance-corrected consistency of decision outcomes. Random effects were most evident in the relative mid-range of competitiveness. Results support aggressive high- and low-end stratification or triaging of applications for subsequent stages of review, with the proportion and set of mid-range submissions to be retained for further consideration being dependent on overall success rate. Copyright: © 2015 Crown Copyright. Source

Bourgeault I.L.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Healthcare Papers | Year: 2013

In their paper "Using Evidence to Meet Population Healthcare Needs: Successes and Challenges," Tomblin Murphy and MacKenzie highlight the critically important need to shift health system reform efforts from those focused on the more salient provider or supply side to those that more appropriately attempt to better meet patient and population health needs. A population needs-based focus on health workforce planning that is more than just rhetoric is indeed important, as is acknowledging that population health needs are best addressed through an interdisciplinary approach to care. Most importantly, the authors also argue that rigorous evaluation is needed to scale up the most promising health workforce innovations: this could be best addressed with a dedicated arm's-length health workforce evidence infrastructure. Source

Stein D.J.,University of Cape Town | He Y.,Shanghai Mental Health Center | Phillips A.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research | Sahakian B.J.,University of Cambridge | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Morgan D.G.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research | D'Arcy C.K.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of the Medical Library Association | Year: 2013

Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information. Source

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