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Wijeysundera H.C.,Heart Health | Wijeysundera H.C.,University of Toronto | Machado M.,Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative | Farahati F.,Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative | And 16 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2010

Context: Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has declined substantially in Canada since 1994. Objective: To determine what proportion of this decline was associated with temporal trends in CHD risk factors and advancements in medical treatments. Design, Setting, and Patients: Prospective analytic study of the Ontario, Canada, population aged 25 to 84 years between 1994 and 2005, using an updated version of the validated IMPACT model, which integrates data on population size, CHD mortality, risk factors, and treatment uptake changes. Relative risks and regression coefficients from the published literature quantified the relationship between CHD mortality and (1) evidence-based therapies in 8 distinct CHD subpopulations (acute myocardial infarction [AMI], acute coronary syndromes, secondary prevention post-AMI, chronic coronary artery disease, heart failure in the hospital vs in the community, and primary prevention for hyperlipidemia or hypertension) and (2) population trends in 6 risk factors (smoking, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol level, exercise, and obesity). Main Outcome Measures: The number of deaths prevented or delayed in 2005; secondary outcome measures were improvements in medical treatments and trends in risk factors. Results: Between 1994 and 2005, the age-adjusted CHD mortality rate in Ontario decreased by 35% from 191 to 125 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants, translating to an estimated 7585 fewer CHD deaths in 2005. Improvements in medical and surgical treatments were associated with 43% (range, 11% to 124%) of the total mortality decrease, most notably in AMI (8%; range, -5% to 40%), chronic stable coronary artery disease (17%; range,7%to 35%), and heart failure occurring while in the community (10%; range,6%to 31%). Trends in risk factors accounted for 3660 fewer CHD deaths prevented or delayed (48% of total; range, 28% to 64%), specifically, reductions in total cholesterol (23%; range, 10% to 33%) and systolic blood pressure (20%; range, 13% to 26%). Increasing diabetes prevalence and body mass index had an inverse relationship associated with higher CHD mortality of 6% (range, 4% to 8%) and 2% (range, 1% to 4%), respectively. Conclusion: Between 1994 and 2005, there was a decrease in CHD mortality rates in Ontario that was associated primarily with trends in risk factors and improvements in medical treatments, each explaining about half of the decrease. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Taljaard M.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Taljaard M.,University of Ottawa | Ward M.R.,University of Toronto | Kutryk M.J.B.,St. Michaels Hospital | And 8 more authors.
American Heart Journal | Year: 2010

Background: Despite the widespread use of pharmacological and/or interventional reperfusion therapies, recovery of cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI) patients is often modest or even absent. Unlike classical pharmacological treatments, the use of progenitor cells could potentially restore functional tissue in regions that otherwise would form only scar. However, a major limitation of autologous cell therapy is the deleterious influence of age and cardiac risk factors on progenitor cell activity. Trial Design: The ENACT-AMI trial is a phase IIb, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial, using transplantation of autologous early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for patients who have suffered large MI. Circulating mononuclear cells (MNCs) are obtained by apheresis and subjected to differential culture for 3 days to select a population of highly regenerative, endothelial-like, culture modified MNCs (E-CMMs), often referred to as "early EPCs." A total of 99 patients will be randomized to placebo (Plasma-Lyte A), autologous E-CMMs, or E-CMMs transfected with human endothelial nitric oxide synthase delivered by coronary injection into the infarct-related artery. The primary efficacy end point is change from baseline to 6 months in global left ventricular ejection fraction by cardiac MRI; secondary endpoints include regional wall motion, wall thickening, infarct volume, time to clinical worsening, and quality of life. Conclusions: This will be the first clinical trial to include a strategy designed to enhance the function of autologous progenitor cells by overexpressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and the first to use combination gene and cell therapy for the treatment of cardiac disease. © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Alexander J.H.,Duke University | Lopes R.D.,Duke University | James S.,Uppsala Clinical Research Center | Kilaru R.,Duke University | And 30 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and at least two additional risk factors for recurrent ischemic events. RESULTS: The trial was terminated prematurely after recruitment of 7392 patients because of an increase in major bleeding events with apixaban in the absence of a counterbalancing reduction in recurrent ischemic events. With a median follow-up of 241 days, the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke occurred in 279 of the 3705 patients (7.5%) assigned to apixaban (13.2 events per 100 patient-years) and in 293 of the 3687 patients (7.9%) assigned to placebo (14.0 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.11; P = 0.51). The primary safety outcome of major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) definition occurred in 46 of the 3673 patients (1.3%) who received at least one dose of apixaban (2.4 events per 100 patient-years) and in 18 of the 3642 patients (0.5%) who received at least one dose of placebo (0.9 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.46; P = 0.001). A greater number of intracranial and fatal bleeding events occurred with apixaban than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, to antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increased the number of major bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; APPRAISE-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00831441.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Clements P.J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Tan M.,Canadian Heart Research Center | McLaughlin V.V.,University of Michigan | Oudiz R.J.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 4 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2012

Objective: The objective of this report is to compare baseline, management and survival characteristics in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) with systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-APAH) using data from the prospectively enrolled PAH Quality Enhancement Research Initiative. Methods: Between August 2005 and July 2007, patients with IPAH and SSc-APAH were enrolled across 60 US sites and followed up for 3 years. Data on diagnostic tests, clinical variables, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) medication and outcomes were recorded. Results: With some exceptions, baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics were similar between the 279 patients with IPAH and the 228 with SSc-APAH. Patients with SSc-APAH were older at the time of PAH diagnosis, were more likely to be female and were antinuclear antibody positive. Patients with SSc-APAH had poorer spirometric results. During the 3-year follow-up, both groups were managed with prostacyclin and prostacyclin analogue treatment, endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) singly or in combination. At 3 years, patients with SSc-APAH were more likely to be treated with PDE5i alone or with an endothelin receptor antagonist. Patients with SSc-APAH had a significantly lower survival rate compared to patients with IPAH (60% vs 77%, p<0.0001). Conclusions: The cohort with SSc-APAH was older, was more severely ill, was more likely to be female, was managed with PDE5i and had reduced 3-year survival compared with the cohort with IPAH. Source

McLaughlin V.V.,University of Michigan | Langer A.,Canadian Heart Research Center | Tan M.,Canadian Heart Research Center | Clements P.J.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 4 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2013

Background: The Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension-Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (PAHQuERI) was created to help clinicians to implement a guidelines-based approach to the diagnosis and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Patients with PAH represent a heterogeneous population, and physician evaluation and treatment paradigms may vary considerably. Methods: Using an electronic data management system, participating physicians recorded data on diagnostic workup, disease management, and outcomes of patients with PAH. Queries were generated automatically following each follow-up visit if the tests recommended by the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) were not performed at least once. Results: Of 791 patients enrolled in PAH-QuERI, 77% were women; 64% received a diagnosis . 3 months prior to enrollment; 9% were in New York Heart Association functional class I, 39% in II, 48% in III, and 5% in IV; and the median age was 55 years (interquartile range, 45-66 years). At enrollment, all ACCP-recommended tests had been performed in only 6% of patients. The automated program generated 1,530 reminders for 642 patients (81%) with validated enrollment data. The proportion of recommended tests performed was 91% for CBC count, 91% for liver function test, 50% for connective tissue disease screen, 29% for HIV screen, 88% for chest radiograph, 82% for ECG, 97% for two-dimensional echocardiogram, 83% for pulmonary function tests, 41% for oximetry, 57% for ventilation/perfusion scan, 79% for 6-min walk distance, and 90% for right-sided heart catheterization. Regarding management, 78% of patients were on diseasespecifi c therapy, and the use of these therapies tended to increase with the functional disability of the patient. One hundred seventy patients were taking calcium channel blockers, 91 specifi - cally for PAH. Only six of 91 patients (7%) who received calcium channel blockers specifi cally for PAH had met the current guideline for acute vasoreactivity. Conclusions: When comparing reported clinical practice with ACCP guidelines-recommended strategies, a diagnostic care gap is apparent such that certain essential and recommended diagnostic tests may be underused despite the availability of detailed guidelines and reminders. © 2013 American College of Chest Physicians. Source

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