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The Canadian Grain Commission, also known as the CGC, is a Canadian government department responsible for regulation of the grain handling industry.The Minister of Agriculture and Agri-food is responsible for the Canadian Grain Commission.The Commission is governed by the Canada Grain Act which provides for the appointment of three commissioners by the federal cabinet, one of whom is named chief commissioner.Its headquarters are located in Winnipeg Manitoba. As of 2010, the commission has three regional offices which provide a full range of inspection, weighing, analytical, and entomology services, namely, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Montreal, Quebec, and Vancouver, B.C. Wikipedia.


Demeke T.,Canadian Grain Commission | Jenkins G.R.,Grain Inspection
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Biotechnology-derived varieties of canola, cotton, corn and soybean are being grown in the USA, Canada and other predominantly grain exporting countries. Although the amount of farmland devoted to production of biotechnology-derived crops continues to increase, lingering concerns that unintended consequences may occur provide the EU and most grain-importing countries with justification to regulate these crops. Legislation in the EU requires traceability of grains/oilseeds, food and feed products, and labelling, when a threshold level of 0.9% w/w of genetically engineered trait is demonstrated to be present in an analytical sample. The GE content is routinely determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and plant genomic DNA provides the template for the initial steps in this process. A plethora of DNA extraction methods exist for qPCR applications. Implementing standardized methods for detection of genetically engineered traits is necessary to facilitate grain marketing. The International Organization for Standardization draft standard 21571 identifies detergent-based methods and commercially available kits that are widely used for DNA extraction, but also indicates that adaptations may be necessary depending upon the sample matrix. This review assesses advantages and disadvantages of various commercially available DNA extraction kits, as well as modifications to published cetyltrimethylammonium bromide methods. Inhibitors are a major obstacle for efficient amplification in qPCR. The types of PCR inhibitors and techniques to minimize inhibition are discussed. Finally, accurate quantification of DNA for applications in qPCR is not trivial. Many confounders contribute to differences in analytical measurements when a particular DNA quantification method is applied and different methods do not always provide concordant results on the same DNA sample. How these differences impact measurement uncertainty in qPCR is considered. © 2009 Canadian Grain Commission.


Tittlemier S.A.,Canadian Grain Commission
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a relatively new and diverse set of compounds analyzed as contaminants in food. Their unique physical-chemical properties dictate the methods used for their analysis. Current analyses of the more volatile PFCs involve gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is generally used for the less volatile PFCs. Considerations in the analysis of PFCs in foods include contamination from the widespread presence of materials that contain various PFCs, endogenous interfering compounds, and matrix effects. Future opportunities for research on PFCs in food exist, particularly in the areas of biological molecule-PFC interactions and the effects of food processing on these interactions. Future research will be facilitated by the synthesis of a wider variety of analytical standards. © 2010 Crown copyright in right of Canada.


Barley cell walls are an excellent source of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Despite variations due to genetic and environmental factors within cereal grains, generally the content of total dietary fiber in whole barley grain (17.3%) is higher than in other cereal grains. Arabinoxylans and mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucans are the major nonstarch polysaccharides present in various tissues of barley, but other polysaccharides such as cellulose, glucomannans, and arabinogalactans also occur, although in much smaller amounts. Depending on the genotypic or cellular origin, both polymers exhibit variations in molecular features. The molecular structures of β-glucans and arabinoxylans are important terminants of physicochemical properties and may affect physiological functionality in the gastrointestinal tract. Barley β-lucans have been associated with lowering plasma cholesterol, reducing glycemic index, and reducing the risk of colon cancer. Furthermore, arabinoxylans offer nutritional benefits of soluble and insoluble fiber and, because of phenolic moieties bound to arabinoxylans, they may also have some antioxidant properties. © 2010 AACC International, Inc.


Niessen L.,TU Munich | Grafenhan T.,Canadian Grain Commission | Vogel R.F.,TU Munich
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

The combined data set of the acl1 and tef-1α gene sequences of 61 fungal strains assigned to Fusarium tricinctum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium arthrosporioides, Fusarium flocciferum and Fusarium torulosum were used to study the phylogenetic relations between taxa. F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. avenaceum formed distinct clades. Members of the F. tricinctum/. F. acuminatum clade fall into three well supported lineages, of which the largest includes the epitype of F. tricinctum. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was used to amplify a 167. bp portion of the acl1 gene in F. tricinctum (Corda) Saccardo. DNA amplification was detected in-tube by indirect calcein fluorescence under black light after 60. min of incubation at 65.5 °C. The assay had a detection limit of 0.95. pg of purified genomic DNA of F. tricinctum CBS 410.86 per reaction, corresponding to ca. 18 genomic copies of the acl1 gene. Specificity of the assay was tested using purified DNA from 67 species and subspecies of Fusarium as well as 50 species comprising 22 genera of other filamentous fungi and yeasts. The assay detected 21 of the 23 F. tricinctum strains tested. Cross reactivity was observed with eight out of 13 strains in F. acuminatum but with none of 17 F. avenaceum strains tested. Specificity was further confirmed by conventional PCR with primers designed from the same gene. Detection of F. tricinctum from culture scrapings directly added to the reaction master mix, in DNA extracts from wheat, in single barley grains or in washings of bulk grain samples are proposed as possible applications showing the suitability of the method for food analysis. Finally it was demonstrated that the LAMP reaction can be run using simple lab equipment such as a heating block, water bath, hybridization oven or household equipment, e.g. a microwave oven. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Shahin M.A.,Canadian Grain Commission | Symons S.J.,Canadian Grain Commission
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2011

Fusarium damage in wheat reduces the quality and safety of food and feed products. In this study, the use of hyperspectral imaging was investigated to detect fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) in Canadian wheat samples. Eight hundred kernels of Canada Western Red Spring wheat were segregated into three classes of kernels: sound, mildly damaged and severely damaged. Singulated kernels were scanned with a hyperspectral imaging system in the visible-NIR (400-1000. nm) wavelength range. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the images and the distribution of PCA scores within individual kernels measured to develop linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models for predicting the extent of fusarium damage. An LDA model classified the wheat kernels into sound and FDK categories with an overall accuracy of 92% or better. Classification based on six selected wavelengths was comparable to that based on the full-spectrum data. © 2010.

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