Time filter

Source Type

Bolson J.O.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA | Turnipseed S.B.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2015

Aquaculture is currently one of the most rapidly growing food production industries in the world. The increasing global importance for this industry stems primarily from the fact that it is reducing the gap between the supply and demand for fish products. Commercial aquaculture contributes significantly to the economies of many countries since high-value fish species are a major source of foreign exchange. This review looks at the aquaculture industry, the issues raised by the production of fish through aquaculture for food security, the sustainability of the practice to agriculture, what the future holds for the industry in the next 10-20 years, and why there is a need to have available analytical procedures to regulate the safe use of chemicals and veterinary drugs in aquaculture.


The objective of this work was to characterize molecularly rabies viruses from Mexican skunks, by comparison of a portion of the viral P gene sequence with corresponding regions from other skunk-adapted rabies virus variants and with other genotype 1 rabies viruses that circulate in the Americas. Furthermore, incubation period and histopathologic lesions after virus inoculation by the intra-cerebral route in mice was characterized. According to the results of phylogenetic studies the Mexican skunk strains (Antigenic Variant (AV) 8 and AV10) are evolutionarily quite distinct. The AV10 isolate from South Baja California is quite closely related to the viruses that circulate in Californian skunks; while the AV8 isolate from San Luis Potosí was most closely related to the South central skunk strain that circulates in southern states such as Texas. These variations were reflected in some biological properties of both strains in mice.


PubMed | University of Edinburgh, James Hutton Institute, Aix - Marseille University, University of Hull and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome biology | Year: 2016

The yellow potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, is a devastating plant pathogen of global economic importance. This biotrophic parasite secretes effectors from pharyngeal glands, some of which were acquired by horizontal gene transfer, to manipulate host processes and promote parasitism. G. rostochiensis is classified into pathotypes with different plant resistance-breaking phenotypes.We generate a high quality genome assembly for G. rostochiensis pathotype Ro1, identify putative effectors and horizontal gene transfer events, map gene expression through the life cycle focusing on key parasitic transitions and sequence the genomes of eight populations including four additional pathotypes to identify variation. Horizontal gene transfer contributes 3.5% of the predicted genes, of which approximately 8.5% are deployed as effectors. Over one-third of all effector genes are clustered in 21 putative effector islands in the genome. We identify a dorsal gland promoter element motif (termed DOG Box) present upstream in representatives from 26 out of 28 dorsal gland effector families, and predict a putative effector superset associated with this motif. We validate gland cell expression in two novel genes by in situ hybridisation and catalogue dorsal gland promoter element-containing effectors from available cyst nematode genomes. Comparison of effector diversity between pathotypes highlights correlation with plant resistance-breaking.These G. rostochiensis genome resources will facilitate major advances in understanding nematode plant-parasitism. Dorsal gland promoter element-containing effectors are at the front line of the evolutionary arms race between plant and parasite and the ability to predict gland cell expression a priori promises rapid advances in understanding their roles and mechanisms of action.


Turner A.D.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Dhanji-Rapkova M.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Algoet M.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Suarez-Isla B.A.,University of Chile | And 5 more authors.
Toxicon | Year: 2012

Significant differences previously observed in the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in oysters using official method AOAC 2005.06 and 959.08 were investigated in detail with regard to possible matrix effects. Method AOAC 2005.06 gave results 2-3 times higher than the mouse bioassay method, 959.08, differences thought to be due to underestimation of PSTs by the mouse bioassay. In order to prove the cause of these large differences, work was conducted here to examine the presence and effects of matrix components on the performance of each of the two assays. A range of oyster, cockle and mussel samples were extracted using the AOAC 959.08 hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction method and analysed for PSP by both MBA and LC-FLD. In addition, extracts were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for metals as well as being subjected to a range of nutritional testing methods. Whilst there was no evidence for effect of nutritional components on either assay, ICP-MS analysis revealed a relationship between samples exhibiting the largest differences in relative method performance, specifically those with the largest LC-FLD/MBA toxicity ratio, and samples containing the highest concentrations of zinc and manganese. In order to prove the potential effect of the metals on either the LC-FLD and/or MBA assays, HCl extracts of a range of shellfish were subjected to a number of matrix modifications. Firstly, a number of PSP-positive oyster samples were processed to reduce the concentrations of metals within the extracts, without significantly reducing the concentrations of PSTs. Secondly, a range of mussel and cockle extracts, plus a standard solution of saxitoxin di-hydrochloride were spiked at variable concentrations of zinc. All treated and non-treated extracts, plus a number of controls were subjected to ICP-MS, LC-FLD and MBA testing. Results proved the absence of any effect of metals on the performance of the LC-FLD, whilst showing a large suppressive effect of the metals on the MBA. As such, the results show the performance of the official MBA is potentially unsafe for application to the routine monitoring of PSP toxicity in oysters or in any other shellfish found to contain high concentrations of metal ions. © 2011.


Boison J.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

In the late 1970s, concerns were raised regarding why antithyroid drugs were being administered to food animals to promote growth despite the fact that they had been implicated as being carcinogenic and teratogenic; the growth promotion process produced an inferior quality meat with increased water retention in the animals gastrointestinal tract. An increased incidence of aplasia cutis (a characteristic scalp defect) in consumers in Spain was linked to an increased consumption of antithyroid-contaminated meat. Therefore, to protect human health, the EU banned the use of antithyroid drugs in food animal production in 1981. This article reviews the impact of this regulatory decision on the regulatory analysis of these compounds in foods of animal origin. It discusses the physiology of the thyroid gland, the chemistry of antithyroid drugs and critically evaluates the suitability of the analytical methods that have been developed and validated to support enforcement of the regulation. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Weingartl H.M.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA
Developments in biologicals | Year: 2013

Ebola viruses (EBOV; genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae) cause often fatal, hemorrhagic fever in several species of simian primates including human. While fruit bats are considered a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. In 2009 Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV reported to infect swine with indicated transmission to humans; and a survey in Gabon found over 30% seroprevalence for EBOV in dogs during the Ebola outbreak in 2001-2002. While infections in dogs appear to be asymptomatic, pigs experimentally infected with EBOV can develop clinical disease, depending on the virus species and possibly the age of the infected animals. In the experimental settings, pigs can transmit Zaire-Ebola virus to naive pigs and macaques; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. Attempts at virus and antibody detection require as a prerequisite validation of viral RNA and antibody detection methods especially for pigs, as well as the development of a sampling strategy. Significant issues about disease development remain to be resolved for EBOV. Evaluation of current human vaccine candidates or development of veterinary vaccines de novo for EBOV might need to be considered, especially if pigs or dogs are implicated in the transmission of an African species of EBOV to humans.


Rott M.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA | Lawrence T.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA | Belton M.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA | Sun F.,Ottawa Plant Laboratories | Kyle D.,CFIA
Plant Disease | Year: 2010

The potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis, has been present in Central Saanich on Vancouver Island for at least 45 years. Eradication/control efforts have been ongoing, with regulations enacted in the early 1980s restricting the planting of host crops and movement of soil. Surveys monitoring for cyst populations have been minimal since the regulations have been in place with only one limited study in the early 1990s. In this report, a survey of eight fields was undertaken, chosen as the most likely sites that may still harbor viable PCN cysts. Conventional sampling/detection methods were considered inadequate for the detection of very low cyst populations, and an innovative bioassay was developed to improve detection while minimizing costs and labor. Viable cysts were recovered from two fields, both with past quarantine infractions. Fields with no known infractions were found free of viable cysts. Lack of viable cysts found in fields with no infractions suggests that the quarantine restrictions in place since the early 1980s have been effective in reducing or eliminating PCN from these fields. Further systematic and comprehensive retesting of all fields within the quarantine zone is now required, which could lead to the reduction or lifting of some quarantine restrictions.


Mavrodieva V.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | James D.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA | Williams K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Negi S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

Four of 19 Prunus germplasm accessions hand carried from the Ukraine into the United States without authorization were found to be infected with Plum pox virus (PPV). Of the three isolates characterized, isolates UKR 44189 and UKR 44191 were confirmed to be isolates of PPV strain W, and UKR 44188 was confirmed to be an isolate of PPV strain D. UKR 44189 and UKR 44191 are very closely related to the PPV strain W isolate LV-145bt (HQ670748) from Latvia. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities between these three isolates were greater than 99%. This indicates that the isolates are very closely related and likely originated from a common source. The high genetic diversity among PPV-W strain isolates allowed the identification of potential recombination events between PPV isolates. It appears also that GF 305 peach and Prunus tomentosa are not hosts for the PPV isolate UKR 44189.


PubMed | Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2015

Aquaculture is currently one of the most rapidly growing food production industries in the world. The increasing global importance for this industry stems primarily from the fact that it is reducing the gap between the supply and demand for fish products. Commercial aquaculture contributes significantly to the economies of many countries since high-value fish species are a major source of foreign exchange. This review looks at the aquaculture industry, the issues raised by the production of fish through aquaculture for food security, the sustainability of the practice to agriculture, what the future holds for the industry in the next 10-20 years, and why there is a need to have available analytical procedures to regulate the safe use of chemicals and veterinary drugs in aquaculture.


PubMed | University of Saskatchewan and Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2015

Tulathromycin is approved for the treatment of respiratory disease in cattle and swine. It is intended for long-acting, single-dose injection therapy (Draxxin), making it particularly desirable for use in bison due to the difficulty in handling and ease of creating stress in these animals. The pharmacokinetic properties of tulathromycin in bison were investigated. Ten wood bison received a single 2.5 mg/kg subcutaneous injection of Draxxin. Serum concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection. Tulathromycin demonstrated early maximal serum concentrations, extensive distribution, and slow elimination characteristics. The mean maximum serum concentration (Cmax) was 195 ng/mL at 1.04 h (tmax) postinjection. The mean area under the serum concentration-time curve, extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-inf ), was 9341 ng h/mL. The mean apparent volume of distribution (Vd /F) and clearance (Cls/F) was 111 L/kg and 0.4 L/h/kg, respectively, and the mean half-life (t1/2) was 214 h (8.9 days). Compared to values for cattle, Cmax and AUC0-inf were lower in bison, while the Vd /F was larger and the t1/2 longer. Tissue distribution and clinical efficacy studies in bison are needed to confirm the purported extensive distribution of tulathromycin into lung tissue and to determine whether a 2.5 mg/kg subcutaneous dosage is adequate for bison.

Loading Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA collaborators
Loading Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA collaborators