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Bolson J.O.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA | Turnipseed S.B.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2015

Aquaculture is currently one of the most rapidly growing food production industries in the world. The increasing global importance for this industry stems primarily from the fact that it is reducing the gap between the supply and demand for fish products. Commercial aquaculture contributes significantly to the economies of many countries since high-value fish species are a major source of foreign exchange. This review looks at the aquaculture industry, the issues raised by the production of fish through aquaculture for food security, the sustainability of the practice to agriculture, what the future holds for the industry in the next 10-20 years, and why there is a need to have available analytical procedures to regulate the safe use of chemicals and veterinary drugs in aquaculture. Source

Weingartl H.M.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA
Developments in biologicals | Year: 2013

Ebola viruses (EBOV; genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae) cause often fatal, hemorrhagic fever in several species of simian primates including human. While fruit bats are considered a natural reservoir, the involvement of other species in the EBOV transmission cycle is unclear, especially for domesticated animals. Dogs and pigs are so far the only domestic animals identified as species that can be infected with EBOV. In 2009 Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV reported to infect swine with indicated transmission to humans; and a survey in Gabon found over 30% seroprevalence for EBOV in dogs during the Ebola outbreak in 2001-2002. While infections in dogs appear to be asymptomatic, pigs experimentally infected with EBOV can develop clinical disease, depending on the virus species and possibly the age of the infected animals. In the experimental settings, pigs can transmit Zaire-Ebola virus to naive pigs and macaques; however, their role during Ebola outbreaks in Africa needs to be clarified. Attempts at virus and antibody detection require as a prerequisite validation of viral RNA and antibody detection methods especially for pigs, as well as the development of a sampling strategy. Significant issues about disease development remain to be resolved for EBOV. Evaluation of current human vaccine candidates or development of veterinary vaccines de novo for EBOV might need to be considered, especially if pigs or dogs are implicated in the transmission of an African species of EBOV to humans. Source

Russell G.,Ottawa Health Research Institute | Russell G.,University of Ottawa | Russell G.,University of Vic | Dahrouge S.,Ottawa Health Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Family Practice | Year: 2010

Background: Comprehensiveness, a defining feature of primary care (PC) is associated with patient satisfaction and improved health status. This paper evaluates comprehensive services in fee-for-service (FFS), Health Service Organizations (HSOs), Family Health Networks (FHNs) and Community Health Centres (CHCs) payment models in Ontario. Objectives: To assess how organizational models of PC differ in the delivery of comprehensive services and which organizational factors predict comprehensive PC delivery. Methods: Cross-sectional mixed-method study with nested qualitative case studies. Setting. PC practices in Ontario. Participants. One hundred and thirty-seven PC practices (35 FFS, 32 HSO, 35 FHN and 35 CHC) and 358 providers. Instruments. Surveys based on the Primary Care Assessment Tool and qualitative interviews. Outcome measures. Comprehensiveness scores were calculated from practice report of clinical services offered in women's health, psychosocial counselling, procedural and diagnostic services. Confounding variables were calculated from provider and patient surveys. Performance at a model level was compared using analysis of variance. Multiple regressions then established factors independently associated with comprehensiveness. Results: CHCs offered significantly more comprehensive services (74%) than other models (61%-63%; P < 0.005). Thirty-five per cent of the variance in comprehensiveness was explained by a regression model that included the number of family physicians working at the practice, presence of other allied health providers, rurality and length of practice operation. Conclusions: Practice size and diversity of providers seemed to partially explain the better performance of CHCs. Practice setting and, probably, practice maturity are significant drivers in the provision of comprehensive PC services. These factors warrant further examination in other PC environments. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Boison J.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFIA
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

In the late 1970s, concerns were raised regarding why antithyroid drugs were being administered to food animals to promote growth despite the fact that they had been implicated as being carcinogenic and teratogenic; the growth promotion process produced an inferior quality meat with increased water retention in the animals gastrointestinal tract. An increased incidence of aplasia cutis (a characteristic scalp defect) in consumers in Spain was linked to an increased consumption of antithyroid-contaminated meat. Therefore, to protect human health, the EU banned the use of antithyroid drugs in food animal production in 1981. This article reviews the impact of this regulatory decision on the regulatory analysis of these compounds in foods of animal origin. It discusses the physiology of the thyroid gland, the chemistry of antithyroid drugs and critically evaluates the suitability of the analytical methods that have been developed and validated to support enforcement of the regulation. © 2012 Future Science Ltd. Source

Aenishaenslin C.,University of Montreal | Simon A.,University of Montreal | Forde T.,University of Calgary | Ravel A.,University of Montreal | And 4 more authors.
EcoHealth | Year: 2014

Rabies is endemic throughout arctic areas including the region of Nunavik, situated north of the 55th parallel of Québec, Canada, and raises public health concerns. The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive overview of the temporal and regional distributions of three important components of arctic rabies in Nunavik from 1999 to 2012, following a "One Health" approach: animal rabies tests and confirmed cases, dog vaccination, and human consultations for potential rabies exposures. Forty-four cases of rabies, involving mainly arctic and red foxes, were confirmed in animals during this period. The mean number of dogs vaccinated per 1,000 inhabitants was highly variable and lower in the Hudson region than the Ungava region. 112 consultations for potential rabies exposure were analyzed, of which 24 were exposure to a laboratory confirmed rabid animal. Children less than 10 years of age were the age group most commonly exposed. The median time between potential exposure and administration of the first post-exposure prophylaxis dose was four days. This study confirms that the risk of human exposure to rabid animals in Nunavik is present and underlines the need to follow a "One Health" approach to prevent rabies in humans in similar contexts worldwide. © 2014 International Association for Ecology and Health. Source

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