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Bells Corners, Canada

Boison J.O.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Drug Testing and Analysis

The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is one of three Codex committees tasked with applying risk analysis and relying on independent scientific advice provided by expert bodies organized by FAO/WHO when developing standards. While not officially part of the Codex Alimentarius Commission structure, JECFA provides independent scientific advice to the Commission and its specialist committees such as the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF) in setting maximum residue limits (MRLs) for veterinary drugs. Codex methods of analysis (Types I, II, III, and IV) are defined in the Codex Procedural Manual as are criteria to be used for selecting methods of analysis. However, if a method is to be used under a single laboratory condition to support regulatory work, it must be validated according to an internationally recognized protocol and the use of the method must be embedded in a quality assurance system in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. This paper examines the attributes of the methods used to generate residue depletion data for drug registration and/or licensing and for supporting regulatory enforcement initiatives that experts consider to be useful and appropriate in their assessment of methods of analysis. Copyright © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Kellar J.A.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Preventive Veterinary Medicine

National veterinary services monitor endemic, emerging and exotic disease situations. They intervene when epidemic tendencies demand. They unravel complex disease situations. They do so as monopolies, in environments of political influence and budgetary restraint. When human, animal health and trade protection dictate, they design import or domestic disease control programs. As much as 80% of program expenditures are on surveillance. Their initiatives are scrutinized by treasuries from which they seek funding, industries from which they seek collaboration and trading partners from whom they seek recognition.In democracies, surveillance and control programs are often the products of a complicated consultative process. It involves individuals who have both a commitment to improving an existing animal health situation and access to the required resources. The generations that designed traditionally risk-averse national surveillance and control programs have given way to a new one which is more epidemiologically informed. Their successors design programs bearing epidemiologically based improvements. The transition, however, has not been overwhelmingly welcomed.Expenditures on surveillance are tolerated out of fear during outbreaks of foreign or re-emergence of indigenous disease. Between epidemics, they decline at the hands of producers' unwillingness and budgetary restraint. Human nature responds to the high cost of surveillance in forms ranging from naïveté through to conspiracy. While legislation cannot subdue such human frailty, several other opportunities exist.Education can remove the majority of problems caused by ignorance, leaving the minority that arise intentionally. Technology decreases the high cost of testing which tempts individuals to cut corners. International standards assist National Veterinary Services to overcome domestic resistance. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

De Boer S.H.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency | Lopez M.M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia
Annual Review of Phytopathology

Accurate plant disease diagnoses and rapid detection and identification of plant pathogens are of utmost importance for controlling plant diseases and mitigating the economic losses they incur. Technological advances have increasingly simplified the tools available for the identification of pathogens to the extent that, in some cases, this can be done directly by growers and producers themselves. Commercially available immunoprinting kits and lateral flow devices (LFDs) for detection of selected plant pathogens are among the first tools of what can be considered grower-friendly pathogen monitoring methods. Research efforts, spurned on by point-of-care needs in the medical field, are paving the way for the further development of on-the-spot diagnostics and multiplex technologies in plant pathology. Grower-friendly methods need to be practical, robust, readily available, and cost-effective. Such methods are not restricted to on-the-spot testing but extend to laboratory services, which are sometimes more practicable for growers, extension agents, regulators, and other users of diagnostic tests. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Nadin-Davis S.A.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency | Real L.A.,Emory University
Advances in Virus Research

Technical improvements over the past 2 decades have enormously facilitated the generation of nucleotide sequence data for lyssavirus collections. These databases are amenable to methods of phylogenetic analysis, which attempt to define the taxonomic structure of this genus and predict the evolutionary relationships of current circulating strains. Coupled with a range of mathematical tools to explore the appropriateness of nucleotide substitution models and test for positive selection, the evolutionary process is being explored in detail. Despite the potential for high viral mutation levels, the operation of purifying selection appears to effectively constrain lyssavirus evolution. The recent development of coalescent theory has provided additional approaches to data analysis whereby the time frame of emergence of viral lineages can be most reliably estimated. Such studies suggest that all currently circulating rabies viruses have emerged within the past 1500. years. Moreover, through the capability of analyzing viral population dynamics and determining patterns of population size variation, coalescent approaches can provide insight into the demographics of viral outbreaks. Whereas human-assisted movement of reservoir host species has clearly facilitated transfer of rabies between continents, topographical landscape features significantly influence the rate and extent of contiguous disease spread. Together with empirical studies on virus diversity, the application of coalescent approaches will help to better understand lyssavirus emergence, evolution, and spread. In particular, such methods are presently facilitating exploration of the factors operating to limit the ability of lyssaviruses to establish new persistent virus-host associations and ultimately control the emergence of new 5/20/2011 3:13:00 PMspecies of this genus. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Lafontaine J.D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Schmidt B.C.,Canadian Food Inspection Agency

An annotated check list of the North American species of Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) is presented, consisting of 3693 species. One-hundred and sixty-six taxonomic changes are proposed, consisting of 13 species-group taxa accorded species status (stat. n. and stat. rev.), 2 revalidated genus-group taxa (stat. rev.), and 2 family-group taxa raised to subfamily. Sixty-nine species-group taxa are downgraded to junior synonyms or subspecies (stat. n., syn. rev., and syn. n.), and 6 genera relegated to synonymy. Sixty-seven new or revised generic combinations are proposed. No new taxa are described. Six non-native species now believed to be established in North America are documented for the first time, namely Simplicia cornicalis (Fabricius, 1794), Nola cucullatella (Linnaeus, 1758), Tyta luctuosa ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), Oligia latruncula ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), Niphonyx segregata (Butler, 1878) and Hecatera dysodea ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775). The check list is arranged according to species membership in higher-level taxa (family, subfamily, tribe, subtribe), based on the most recent working hypotheses of a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for the Noctuoidea. Source

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