Canadian Food and Wine Institute

Niagara Falls, Canada

Canadian Food and Wine Institute

Niagara Falls, Canada
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Zhang L.,Jiangnan University | Li G.,University of Auckland | Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute | Yao W.,Jiangnan University | Zhu F.,University of Auckland
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6 μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5 °C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute | Wang S.,University of Auckland | Zhu F.,University of Auckland
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is native to North America, and has been used by indigenous peoples for food and non-food applications for a long time. It has been adapted to the other parts of the world for cultivation as a potential source of functional food ingredients. This review summarises the updated information on the chemical composition and diverse biological activities of staghorn sumac. Various factors affect the chemical composition, function retention during processing, and nutritional properties of staghorn sumac-derived products. These factors include botanical characteristics and environmental conditions, extraction and quantification methods, and processing parameters. Various innovative and potential uses of staghorn sumac in food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries are suggested on the basis of the chemical constituents. This review provides a scientific basis for the development of staghorn sumac as a sustainable economic plant for food and other industries. © 2017

Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute | Zhu F.,University of Auckland
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

Antioxidant (AOX) synergies have been much reported in chemical (“test-tube” based assays focusing on pure chemicals), biological (tissue culture, animal and clinical models), and food systems during the past decade. Tentative synergies differ from each other due to the composition of AOX and the quantification methods. Regeneration mechanism responsible for synergy in chemical systems has been discussed. Solvent effects could contribute to the artifacts of synergy observed in the chemical models. Synergy in chemical models may hardly be relevant to biological systems that have been much less studied. Apparent discrepancies exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms in both chemical and biological systems. This review discusses diverse variables associated with AOX synergy and molecular scenarios for explanation. Future research to better utilize the synergy is suggested. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute | Opassathavorn A.,University of Auckland | Zhu F.,University of Auckland
Journal of Texture Studies | Year: 2015

Quinoa has unique physicochemical and nutritional properties among diverse food grains. Quinoa flour (QF) was blended into wheat flour (WF) at weight ratios of 85/15, 70/30, 55/45, 40/60, 25/75 and 10/90 to formulate composite flour for the production of cookie, bread and Chinese steamed bread (CSB). Physicochemical properties of quinoa-wheat composite flour (QWCF) and quality characteristics of the bakery products were characterized. The feasibility of using QF in CSB making was explored for the first time. Compared with products of WF, the resulting products from QWCF had reduced specific volume, and increased density, hardness and chewiness of the texture, darkness, redness, and yellowness of the color. The mold-free shelf life of bread and CSB increased as a function of QF level. The influence of QF addition on the physicochemical properties of bakery products is product-type sensitive. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute | Zhu F.,University of Auckland | Marcone M.F.,University of Guelph
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2015

Edible staghorn sumac (Rhus hirta) fruit extract was applied in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil to promote cytotoxicity of the drugs toward human breast cancer cells MCF-7 while protecting normal cells MCF-10A from drug toxicity. Sumac extract would be a promising chemotherapeutic drug conjugate in cancer chemotherapy. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2015.

Zhu F.,University of Auckland | Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Interests in sweetpotato production and utilization are surging in recent years. The major carbohydrate of sweetpotato root is starch which accounts up to around 80% of the dry matter, with a large and cheap potential supply. This review summarizes the recent advances in physicochemical properties, structure, modifications, and uses of sweetpotato starches, and provides suggestions for further research to improve the utilization. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute | Zhu F.,University of Auckland
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2016

Diverse functional properties and gluten-free feature grant quinoa uniqueness among grain-related foods. This generates great scientific enthusiasms for quinoa-related product development worldwide. This review characterizes a wide variety of quinoa products launched during the last 5 years, including breads (sourdough and non-sourdough), Chinese-steamed bread, pasta, cookies, breakfast cereals, snacks, edible films and emulsion stabilizers. The focus is given to the impact of quinoa on diverse quality attributes of the products. Innovative approaches for counteracting the negative alterations in product properties caused by adding quinoa are discussed. Research directions on how to develop unique quinoa-based products are suggested. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute | Zhu F.,University of Auckland
Food Research International | Year: 2016

The ever-increasing occurrence of diabetes worldwide demands cost-effective anti-diabetic strategies. Food-based materials have great potential as efficient anti-diabetic agents. Focusing on the literatures of the recent 5 years, this review summarizes the methods, findings, and limitations of each research involving non-medicinal foods (individual and mixed) and diabetic animal models. Various types of fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals, spices, beverages, oilseeds, and edible oils showed antidiabetic effects in different animal models. Animal feeding trials rarely had identical designs in food doses, feeding schedules, and routes of administration, as well as biochemical markers for antidiabetic evaluation. A range of possible cellular and metabolic targets were speculated for the anti-hyperglycemic effects of the dietary materials, and the molecular mechanisms of action remain to be better explored. Short-term (maximum 16 weeks) antidiabetic studies have been established. Limited safety/tolerability data are available for antidiabetic dietary materials. Findings from current animal studies present a generic antidiabetic dietary pattern associated with plant-based whole foods, which agrees well with the findings of epidemiological studies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Li G.,University of Auckland | Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute | Zhu F.,University of Auckland
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2016

Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhu F.,University of Auckland | Sakulnak R.,University of Auckland | Wang S.,Canadian Food and Wine Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Black tea is rich in phenolic antioxidants and has various health benefits. Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a traditional food produced through steaming of fermented dough. Black tea extracts were incorporated into northern style CSB formulation at varying concentrations up to 175 mg gallic acid equivalent/gram of wheat flour. Gelatinization properties of wheat flour were not affected by the black tea addition. Rheological analysis of wheat flour showed that black tea increased pasting viscosity, consistency index of flow curves, and storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) during dynamic oscillation. Black tea incorporation increased the antioxidant activity as measured by chemical assays, had little effect on textural properties, and increased the darkness of CSB. Sensory evaluation showed a good overall acceptance of black tea fortified CSB. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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