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Bells Corners, Canada

Fenwick N.,Canadian Council on Animal Care CCAC | Ormandy E.,Canadian Council on Animal Care CCAC | Ormandy E.,University of British Columbia | Gauthier C.,Canadian Council on Animal Care CCAC | Griffin G.,Canadian Council on Animal Care CCAC
Animal Welfare | Year: 2011

Severity classification systems (ie pain scales, categories of invasiveness, degrees of severity etc) are used to classify the adverse effects experienced by animals used for scientific purposes. Currently, eleven countries use severity classification systems. These systems have developed in various ways, depending on each country's process for overseeing the use of animals in science, as well as the particular aspects emphasised by those individuals who have championed their implementation. Severity classification serves four main purposes: as a tool to assist animal ethics committees in ethical review; education of animal users about concepts for humane animal experimentation; provision of data to inform the public about scientific animal use; and provision of data to inform national policies. At a time when the newly accepted European Union Directive will make the reporting of severity data mandatory, we review the characteristics of international severity classification systems and how they have evolved; analyse the effectiveness of some systems; and identify emerging challenges for severity classification. © 2011 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Source

Fenwick N.,Canadian Council on Animal Care CCAC | Duffus S.E.G.,Canadian Council on Animal Care CCAC | Griffin G.,Canadian Council on Animal Care CCAC
Animals | Year: 2014

To explore the challenges and opportunities for pain management for animals used in research an interview study with 9 veterinarians, 3 veterinarian-scientists and 9 scientists, all engaged in animal-based studies in Canada, was carried out. Our broader aim was to contribute to further discussion of how pain can be minimized for animals used in science. Diverse views were identified regarding the ease of recognizing when animals are in pain and whether animals hide pain. Evidence of inconsistencies in pain management across laboratories, institutions and species were also identified. Clarification of the interactions between scientific objectives and pain management are needed, as well as a stronger evidence base for pain management approaches. Detailed examination of pain management for individual invasive animal models may be useful, and may support the development of model-specific pain management protocols. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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