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Reimer R.A.,University of Calgary | Grover G.J.,Product Safety Labs | Koetzner L.,Product Safety Labs | Gahler R.J.,Inc. R and D | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Our primary objective was to determine whether administering the viscous and fermentable polysaccharide PolyGlycopleX (PGX) with metformin (MET) or sitagliptin/metformin (S/MET) reduces hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats more so than monotherapy of each. Glucose tolerance, adiposity, satiety hormones and mechanisms related to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 activity, gut microbiota and, hepatic and pancreatic histology were examined. Male ZDF rats (9-10 weeks of age) were randomized to: i) cellulose/vehicle (control, C); ii) PGX (5% wt/wt)/vehicle (PGX); iii) cellulose/metformin (200 mg/kg) (MET); iv) cellulose/S/MET (10 mg/kgC200 mg/kg) (S/MET); v) PGX (5%)CMET (200 mg/kg) (PGXCMET); vi) cellulose/sitagliptin/MET (5%)C(10 mg/kgC200 mg/kg) (PGXCS/MET) for 6 weeks. PGXCMET and PGXCS/MET reduced glycemia compared with C and singular treatments (PZ0.001). Weekly fastedand fed blood glucose levels were lower in PGXCMET and PGXCS/MET compared with all other groups at weeks 4, 5, and 6 (PZ0.001). HbA1c was lower in PGXCS/MET than C, MET, S/MET, and PGX at week 6 (PZ0.001). Fat mass was lower and GLP1 was higher in PGXCS/MET compared with all other groups (PZ0.001). β-cell mass was highest and islet degeneration lowest inPGXCS/MET. Hepatic lipidosis was significantly lower in PGXCS/MET compared with PGX or S/MET alone. When combined with PGX, both MET and S/MET markedly reduce glycemia; however, PGXCS/MET appears advantageous over PGXCMET in terms of increased β-cell mass and reduced adiposity. Both combination treatments attenuated diabetes in the obese Zucker rat. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

Reimer R.A.,University of Calgary | Pelletier X.,OPTIMED Clinical Research | Carabin I.G.,Burdock Group | Lyon M.,Canadian Center for Functional Medicine | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background/Objectives:A variety of dietary fibers have been shown to alter satiety hormone gene expression and secretion. The objective of this study was to examine plasma satiety hormone concentrations in healthy subjects consuming either PolyGlycopleX (PGX) or control (skim milk powder) for 21 days.Subjects/Methods:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was conducted in 54 healthy male and female adults. Participants consumed 5 g per day of PGX or control for 1 week followed by 2 additional weeks of 10 g per day of assigned product (n27 per group). Primary outcomes measured at three visits (V1, V2 and V3) were plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) total ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and insulin.Results:There was a significant effect of visit for fasting PYY with control participants experiencing decreased PYY levels over time while PGX prevented this decline. When stratified by body mass index (BMI), PGX increased fasting PYY levels from week 1 to week 3 compared with control in participants with BMI <23 kg/m2. There was a significant effect of visit for fasting ghrelin with levels decreasing in both PGX and control groups over time. No differences were detected in fasting GLP-1 levels. Although there was a 14% reduction in fasting insulin between V1 and V3 with PGX this was not significantly different from control.Conclusions:PGX is a highly viscous, functional fiber that modifies satiety hormone secretion in healthy adults. Its potential to act similarly in overweight adults warrants investigation. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Reimer R.A.,University of Calgary | Grover G.J.,Product Safety Labs | Koetzner L.,Product Safety Labs | Gahler R.J.,Factors Group of Nutritional Companies Inc. R and D | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The novel polysaccharide (NPS) PolyGlycopleX (PGX) has been shown to reduce glycemia. Pharmacological treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor, also reduces glycemia by increasing glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Our objective was to determine if using NPS in combination with sitagliptin reduces hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats more so than either treatment alone. Male ZDF rats were randomized to: 1) cellulose/vehicle [control (C)]; 2) NPS (5%wt:wt)/vehicle (NPS); 3) cellulose/sitagliptin [10mg/(kg d) (S)]; or 4) NPS (5%) + S [10mg/(kg · d) (NPS+S)]. Glucose tolerance, adiposity, satiety hormones, and mechanisms related to DPP4 activity and hepatic and pancreatic histology were examined. A clinically relevant reduction in hyperglycemia occurred in the rats treated with NPS+S (P = 0.001) compared with NPS and S alone. Blood glucose, measured weekly in fed and feed-deprived rats and during an oral glucose tolerance test, was lower in the NPS+S group compared with all other groups (all P = 0.001). At wk 6, glycated hemoglobin was lower in the NPS+S group than in the C and S (P = 0.001) and NPS (P = 0.06) groups. PGX (P = 0.001) and S (P = 0.014) contributed to increased leanmass. Active GLP-1was increased by S (P = 0.001) and GIPwas increased by NPS (P = 0.001). Plasma DPP4 activity was lower in the NPS+S and S groups than in the NPS and C groups (P = 0.007). Insulin secretion and b-cell mass was increased with NPS (P< 0.05). NPS alone reduced LDL cholesterol and hepatic steatosis (P < 0.01). Independently, NPS and S improve several metabolic outcomes in ZDF rats, but combined, their ability to markedly reduce glycemia suggests they may be a promising dietary/pharmacological co-therapy for type 2 diabetes management. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Grover G.J.,EurofinsUS | Koetzner L.,EurofinsUS | Wicks J.,Histo Scientific Research Laboratories | Gahler R.J.,Factors Group of Nutritional Products Inc. R and D | And 4 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Aims: The effects of the novel water soluble, viscous fiber complex PolyGlycopleX® [(α-d-glucurono-α-d-manno-β-d-manno-β- d-gluco), (α-l-gulurono-β-d mannurono), β-d-gluco-β-d- mannan (PGX®)] on body weight, food consumption, glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) levels were determined in Zucker diabetic rats (ZDFs). Such fibers are thought to improve glycemic control through increased GLP-1 induced insulin secretion. Main methods: ZDFs were treated 12 weeks with normal rodent chow supplemented with cellulose (control, inert fiber), inulin or PGX® at 5% wt/wt and effects on body weight, glycemic control, and GLP-1 determined. Key findings: In the fed state, PGX® reduced blood glucose compared to the other groups from week 5 until study termination while insulin was significantly elevated when measured at week 9, suggesting an insulin secretagogue effect. Fasting blood glucose was similar among groups until 7-8 weeks when levels began to climb with a modest reduction caused by PGX®. An oral glucose tolerance test in fasted animals (week 11) showed no change in insulin sensitivity scores among diets, suggesting an insulinotropic effect for PGX® rather than increased insulin sensitivity. PGX® increased plasma levels of GLP-1, while HbA1c was markedly reduced by PGX®. Body weights were not changed despite a significant reduction in food consumption induced by PGX® up to week 8 when the PGX®-treated group showed an increase in body weight despite a continued reduction in food consumption. Significance: PGX® improved glycemic control and reduced protein glycation, most likely due to the insulin secretagogue effects of increased GLP-1. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Brand-Miller J.C.,University of Sydney | Atkinson F.S.,University of Sydney | Gahler R.J.,Factors Group R and D | Kacinik V.,University of British Columbia | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background:Viscous fibre in food has established health benefits, but few functional fibre preparations are both effective and palatable. Our objective was to determine the most effective dose, formulation and timing of consumption of a novel fibre supplement (PolyGlycopleX (PGX)) in reducing postprandial glycaemia.Subjects/Methods: Three trials were undertaken, each with 10 subjects (8M and 8F; age 24.4±2.6 years). Granular supplement was tested at four doses (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) with breakfast (study 1). Granular and capsule forms of the supplement were given in a single dose (5 g for granules and 4.5 g in capsules) at 60, 45, 30, 15 and 0 before, and 15 min after a bread meal (study 2). Capsules at increasing doses (1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 g) were consumed with the evening meal to determine effects on glucose tolerance at breakfast (study 3). Incremental area under the blood glucose curve was determined. Results: Granular PGX at breakfast time at doses of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g reduced the incremental area under the curve by up to 50% in a linear dose-response fashion (P<0.001). The granular form of PGX (5 g), but not the capsules, reduced glycaemia by up to 28% when consumed from 45 to 15 min (P<0.001). Capsules containing 3, 4.5 and 6 g PGX consumed with the evening meal reduced glycaemia at breakfast by up to 28% (P<0.001).Conclusions:PGX has biologically important, dose-related effects on acute and delayed (second meal) postprandial glycaemia. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Brand-Miller J.C.,University of Sydney | Atkinson F.S.,University of Sydney | Gahler R.J.,Factors Group R and D | Kacinik V.,Canadian Center for Functional Medicine | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The development of lower-glycaemic index (GI) foods requires simple, palatable and healthy strategies. The objective of the present study was to determine the most effective dose of a novel viscous fibre supplement (PGX ®) to be added to starchy foods to reduce their GI. Healthy subjects (n 10) consumed glucose sugar (50 g in water-3) and six starchy foods with a range of GI values (52-72) along with 0 (inert fibre), 2•5 or 5 g granular PGX® dissolved in 250 ml water. GI testing according to ISO Standard 26 642-2010 was used to determine the reduction in GI. PGX ® significantly reduced the GI of all six foods (P < 0•001), with an average reduction of 19 % for the 2•5 g dose and 30 % for the 5 g dose, equivalent to a reducing the GI by 7 and 15 units, respectively. Consuming small quantities of the novel functional fibre PGX ®, mixed with water at the start of a meal, is an effective strategy to reduce the GI of common foods. © 2011 The Authors.

Jenkins A.L.,Index Inc | Kacinik V.,InovoBiologic Inc. | Kacinik V.,Canadian Center for Functional Medicine | Lyon M.R.,Canadian Center for Functional Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective: Health benefits of viscous fiber intake are well established; nevertheless few effective and palatable preparations are available. The objective of the study therefore was to determine palatability and effectiveness of escalating doses of PGX, a novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), in reducing postprandial glycemia when added to a liquid and a solid meal. Design: Two open-label, randomized, controlled trials were undertaken. Setting: Glycemic Index Laboratories, Inc, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Subjects: Two groups of 10 healthy subjects each (group 1: 5 M, 5 F; 35.6 ± 13.2 y; 24.6 ± 2.1 kg/m2; and group 2: 3 M, 7 F; 33.5 ± 11.1 y; 26.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2) were studied. Interventions: Zero, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 g of NVP were added to a glucose drink (group 1) or to white bread and margarine (WB + Marg) (group 2). Subjects repeated glucose control (group 1) or WB control (group 2) 3 times to allow calculation of the glycemic index (GI). Measures of Outcomes: Palatability of foods and capillary blood glucose concentrations were measured fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the start of the meal. Results: Addition of NVP to the meal reduced blood glucose incremental areas under the curve irrespective of dose, reaching significance at the 7.5 g dose when added to glucose (p<0.01), and at the 5 and 7.5 g doses when added toWB + Marg (p<0.001). The GI values of glucose with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP were (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) 100.0 ± 0.0, 83.7 ± 9.0, 77.7 ± 8.2, and 72.5 ± 5.9, respectively; the GI of the WB alone, or of WB + Marg, with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP was 71.0 ± 0.0, ± 6.8 ± 3.0, 47.5 ± 5.9, 37.3 ± 5.9, and 33.9 ± 3.6, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of NVP to different food matrices is highly effective in lowering the glycemic index of a food in a dose-responsive manner.

Lyon M.R.,Canadian Center for Functional Medicine | Lyon M.R.,University of British Columbia | Reichert R.G.,Canadian Center for Functional Medicine
Alternative Medicine Review | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Viscous soluble dietary fiber has been demonstrated to reduce postprandial glycemia and may promote satiety. PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®) is a highly viscous polysaccharide manufactured by reacting glucomannan with other soluble polysaccharides using a proprietary process (EnviroSimplex®). The resulting polysaccharide (α-D-glucurono-α-D-manno-β-D-manno- β-D-glucan,α-L-gulurono-β-D-mannuronan,β-D-gluco-β-D- mannan, α-D-glucurono-α-D-manno-β-D-manno-β-D-gluco, α-L-gulurono-β-D-mannurono, β-D-gluco-β-D-mannan) is a novel entity with the highest viscosity and water-holding capacity of currently known fibers. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 29 sedentary overweight or obese adults (23 women; six men), ages 20-65 with a body mass index (BMI) range of 25 kg/m2 to 36 kg/m2 participated in a clinical weight-loss program. PGX (5 g) was consumed with 500 ml. water, 5-10 minutes before each meal, 2-3 times daily for 14 weeks. RESULTS: Significant reductions were observed (p<0.05) in weight (-5.79±3.55 kg), waist circumference (-12.07±5.56 cm), and percentage body fat (-2.43±2.39%) compared to baseline values. In addition, subjects employing PGX had a significant reduction of 19.26 percent (n=17; p<0.05) and 25.51 percent (n=16; p<0.05) in total and LDL plasma cholesterol values, respectively, at the end of the study period. CONCLUSION: The consumption of PGX in concert with lifestyle modifications may be a useful strategy for weight loss in overweight and obese individuals.

March K.M.,University of British Columbia | Chen N.N.,University of British Columbia | Karakochuk C.D.,University of British Columbia | Shand A.W.,University of Sydney | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants. Maternal supplementation beginning in gestation is a potential alternative, but its efficacy in maintaining infant 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration after birth is unknown. Objectives: We determined the effect of 3 doses of maternal vitamin D supplementation beginning in gestation and continued in lactation on infant serum 25(OH)D and compared the prevalence of infant serum 25(OH)D cutoffs (.30, >40, >50, and >75 nmol/L) by dose at 8 wk of age. Design: Pregnant women (n = 226) were randomly allocated to receive 10, 25, or 50 mg vitamin D3/d from 13 to 24 wk of gestation until 8 wk postpartum, with no infant supplementation. Mother and infant blood was collected at 8 wk postpartum. Results: At 8 wk postpartum, mean [nmol/L (95% CI)] infant 25(OH)D at 8 wk was higher in the 50-μg/d [75 (67, 83)] than in the 25-μg/d [52 (45, 58)] or 10-μg/d [45 (38, 52)] vitamin D groups (P < 0.05). Fewer infants born to mothers in the 50-μg/d group had a 25(OH)D concentration <30 nmol/L (indicative of deficiency) than infants in the 25- and 10-μg/d groups, respectively (2% compared with 16% and 43%; P < 0.05). Fewer than 15% of infants in the 10-or 25-μg/d groups achieved a 25(OH)D concentration >75 nmol/L compared with 44% in the 50-mg/d group (P < 0.05). Almost all infants (w98%, n = 44) born to mothers in the 50-μg/d group achieved a 25(OH)D concentration >30 nmol/L. At 8 wk postpartum, mean maternal 25(OH)D concentration was higher in the 50-μg/d [88 (84, 91)] than in the 25-μg/d [78 (74, 81)] or 10-μg/d [69 (66, 73)] groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Maternal supplementation beginning in gestation with 50 μg vitamin D3/d protects 98% of unsupplemented breastfed infants against 25(OH)D deficiency (,30 nmol/L) to at least 8 wk, whereas 10 or 25 mg vitamin D/d protects only 57% and 84% of infants, respectively.

Reimer R.A.,University of Calgary | Grover G.J.,Robert Wood Johnson Medical School | Grover G.J.,Eurofins | Koetzner L.,Eurofins | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2011

Viscous soluble fibers have been shown to reduce risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The novel functional fiber, PolyGlycopleX (PGX) (InovoBiologic Inc, Calgary, Alberta, Canada) displays greater viscosity than other currently identified soluble fibers. The objective of this study was to determine if PGX lowers serum and hepatic triglycerides (TGs) in a high-sucrose-fed rat model. In this rodent model, feeding a high-sucrose diet consistently increases serum TGs. We hypothesized that consumption of PGX would attenuate hypertriglyceridemia and reduce hepatic steatosis compared with cellulose in rats fed a high-sucrose background diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 65% sucrose and supplemented with either 5% cellulose (control) or 5% PGX (wt/wt) for 43 weeks. At study termination, serum insulin and TGs, hepatic steatosis, and hepatocellular injury were assessed. Body weight increased over time in both groups, but weight gain was attenuated in rats fed PGX vs cellulose in weeks 2 through 22 (P < .05). Serum TGs did not differ from baseline for the first half of the study but consistently increased in the cellulose group thereafter. PolyGlycopleX significantly reduced serum TG to near-baseline levels. At study termination, rats fed PGX had significantly lower hepatic steatosis scores (measured by Sudan black staining) compared with rats fed cellulose. Hepatocellular injury scores did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, PGX reduced serum TG and lipid accumulation in the liver of sucrose-fed rats. Further examination of its potential as a fiber supplement aimed at lessening the burden of hepatic steatosis is warranted. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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