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Nosworthy M.G.,University of Manitoba | House J.D.,University of Manitoba | House J.D.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2017

Protein content has been a leading trend in product development in recent years. Similarly, a growing desire for non-animal-based protein sources has led to an interest in plant-based protein such as cereals and pulses. Pulses constitute the dried seeds of nonoilseed legume crops, including dried peas, chickpeas, beans, and lentils. Their crude protein content (typically 21-26% by weight) positions pulses as plant-based alternatives to meats within international dietary guidelines. A major consideration with respect to the inclusion of pulses in processed foods relates to the quality of the dietary protein. Protein quality is generally assessed as a function of the ability of the constituent amino acids found within the food to meet the biological needs of the consumer. Different methods exist to determine the quality of dietary proteins, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Because preparation methods also alter the product's protein quality, these factors must also be considered. This review will discuss recent advances in the determination of protein quality and the factors that influence the quality of pulse proteins for use in human foods. © 2017 AACC International, Inc.


Neijat M.,University of Manitoba | Eck P.,University of Manitoba | House J.D.,University of Manitoba | House J.D.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2017

Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and preformed longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) differ in their egg LCPUFA enrichment efficiency. However, mechanisms leading to these differences are unclear. To this end, omega-3 PUFA contents in different lipid classes, including triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) in yolk, liver and adipose, as well as the expression of key hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism were evaluated in laying hens in response to changes in dietary supply. Seventy Lohmann hens (n=10/treatment) consumed either a control diet (0.03% total omega-3 PUFA), or the control with supplementation (0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3 PUFA) from either flaxseed oil or algal product, as sources of ALA (precursor) or DHA (preformed), respectively. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design, and data were analyzed using the Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. ALA accumulated as a function of intake (P<0.0001) in total and lipid classes of yolk, liver and adipose (TAG only) for ALA- and DHA-fed hens. Unlike flaxseed oil, preformed-DHA contributed to greater (P<0.0001) accumulation of LCPUFA in yolk total PL and TAG pool, as well as adipose TAG. This may relate to elevated (P<0.0001) expression of acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL1). No difference in hepatic EPA level in total lipids was noted between both treatment groups; EPAliver=2.1493x−0.0064; R2=0.70, P<0.0001 (x=dietary omega-3 PUFA). The latter result may highlight the role of hepatic EPA in the regulation of LCPUFA metabolism in laying hens. © 2017


Ander B.P.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | Edel A.L.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | McCullough R.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | Rodriguez-Leyva D.,Lenin Universitary Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2010

Diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with decreased incidences of cardiovascular disease. The extent of incorporation and distribution of these beneficial fats into body tissues is uncertain. Rabbits were fed regular rabbit chow or a diet containing 10% ground flaxseed that is highly enriched with the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA). The high-flaxseed diet resulted in an incorporation of ALA in all tissues, but mostly in the heart and liver with little in the brain. Docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were also selectively increased in some tissues, and the effects were not as large as ALA. Arachidonic acid and the ratio of ω-6/ω-3 fatty acids were decreased in all tissues obtained from the flax-supplemented group. Consumption of dietary flaxseed appears to be an effective means to increase ALA content in body tissues, but the degree will depend upon the tissues examined. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Singh S.,University of the West Indies | Netticadan T.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | Dan Ramdath D.,University of the West Indies | Dan Ramdath D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2016

Scope: Insulin resistance is associated with impaired cardiac function, but the underlying molecular abnormalities are largely unexplained. Bilberry anthocyanin (BAcn) may be protective, as it appears to potentiate insulin action. Methods: Rats were randomly allocated to control, sucrose-fed (SF) or sucrose-fed + BAcn diets (SF-A) for 15 weeks. Cardiac insulin signalling genes and proteins were quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blots. Results: Glucose tolerance was not different with treatment. SF showed lower (p < 0.05) ferric reducing antioxidant power, which increased with BAcn. SF resulted in significantly decreased (p < 0.05) expression of 10 genes: acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha; V-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1; Bcl2-like 1; cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine/enhancer binding protein; FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (soluble); solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 1, 4; hexokinase 2; and thyroglobulin. SF-A prevented these changes. Compared to SF-A, SF up-regulated (p < 0.05) complement factor D and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit1 (α); sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 was down-regulated (p < 0.05). SF increased (p < 0.05) cardiac phospholamban and decreased phosphorylated troponin I, which were not attenuated by BAcn. Compared to control or SF, SF-A resulted in significantly lower (p < 0.05) 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions: SF lowered antioxidant capacity and changed the expression of insulin signalling genes, which were modulated by BAcn. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.


Caligiuri S.P.B.,Canadian Center for Agri food Research in Health and Medicine | Caligiuri S.P.B.,St Boniface Hospital Research Center | Aukema H.M.,Canadian Center for Agri food Research in Health and Medicine | Ravandi A.,St Boniface Hospital Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2014

Background and aims: Oxylipins, including eicosanoids, are highly bioactive molecules endogenously produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oxylipins play a key role in chronic disease progression. It is possible, but unknown, if oxylipin concentrations change with the consumption of functional foods or differ with subject age. Methods: Therefore, in a parallel comparator trial, 20 healthy individuals were recruited into a younger (19-28. years) or older (45-64. years) age group (n. = 10/group). Participants ingested one muffin/day containing 30. g of milled flaxseed (6. g alpha-linolenic acid) for 4. weeks. Plasma oxylipins were isolated through solid phase extraction, analyzed with HPLC-MS/MS targeted lipidomics, and quantified with the stable isotope dilution method. Results: At baseline, the older group exhibited 13 oxylipins ≥. 2-fold the concentration of the younger group. Specifically, pro-inflammatory oxylipins 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 9,10,13-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid, and 9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid were significantly greater in the older (1.1 ± 0.23. nM, 5.6 ± 0.84. nM, and 4.5 ± 0.58. nM, respectively) versus the younger group (0.34 ± 0.12. nM, 3.5 ± 0.33. nM, and 3.0 ± 0.24. nM, respectively) (p. <. 0.05). After 4. weeks of flaxseed consumption the number of oxylipins that were ≥. 2-fold higher in the older versus the younger group was reduced to 3. 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 9,10,13-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid, and 9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid decreased in the older group to concentrations equivalent to the younger group after flaxseed consumption. Conclusion: These data suggest a potential role for oxylipins in the aging process and how nutritional interventions like flaxseed can beneficially disrupt these biological changes associated with inflammation and aging. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Stringer D.M.,University of Manitoba | Stringer D.M.,Canadian Center for Agri food Research in Health and Medicine | Taylor C.G.,University of Manitoba | Taylor C.G.,Canadian Center for Agri food Research in Health and Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2013

Purpose In healthy participants and those with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM), to (1) compare the acute 3-hour post-prandial response of glucose, insulin and other gastrointestinal hormones known to influence food intake and glucose metabolism after consumption of a food product made from whole grain buckwheat flour versus rice flour; (2) determine the effect of daily consumption of a food product made from whole grain buckwheat flour on fasting glucose, lipids and apolipoproteins. Methods Healthy participants or those with T2DM consumed either buckwheat or rice crackers. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after consumption. In a second phase of the study, participants consumed one serving of buckwheat crackers daily for 1 week; fasting blood samples from day 1 and day 7 were analyzed. Results Post-prandial plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and pancreatic polypeptide were altered after consuming buckwheat versus rice crackers. Interestingly, changes in these hormones did not lead to changes in post-prandial glucose, insulin or C-peptide concentrations. Significant correlations were observed between both fasting concentrations and post-prandial responses of several of the hormones examined. Interestingly, certain correlations were present only in the healthy participant group or the T2DM group. There was no effect of consuming buckwheat for one week on fasting glucose, lipids or apolipoproteins in either the healthy participants or those with T2DM. Conclusions Although the buckwheat cracker did not modify acute glycemia or insulinemia, it was sufficient to modulate gastrointestinal satiety hormones. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Hanson M.G.,University of Manitoba | Zahradka P.,University of Manitoba | Zahradka P.,Canadian Center for Agri food Research in Health and Medicine | Taylor C.G.,University of Manitoba | Taylor C.G.,Canadian Center for Agri food Research in Health and Medicine
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Hypertension is a major risk factor for CVD, the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The prevalence of hypertension is expected to continue increasing, and current pharmacological treatments cannot alleviate all the associated problems. Pulse crops have been touted as a general health food and are now being studied for their possible effects on several disease states including hypertension, obesity and diabetes. In the present study, 15-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed diets containing 30A % w/w beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas, or mixed pulses or a pulse-free control diet for 4 weeks. Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were placed on a control diet. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured weekly, while blood pressure (BP) was measured at baseline and week 4. Fasting serum obtained in week 4 of the study was analysed for circulating lipids. A histological analysis was carried out on aortic sections to determine vascular geometry. Of all the pulse varieties studied, lentils were found to be able to attenuate the rise in BP in the SHR model (P


Blewett H.J.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | Blewett H.J.,University of Manitoba | Taylor C.G.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | Taylor C.G.,University of Manitoba
Nutrients | Year: 2012

Zinc deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for developing disease and yet we do not have a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility to infection. This review will examine the interrelationships among the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, p56lck, and T-cell maturation in both zinc deficiency and responses during zinc repletion. We will highlight differences between the adult mouse model (wasting malnutrition) and growing rat model (stunting malnutrition) of dietary zinc deficiency and discuss the use of various controls to separate out the effects of zinc deficiency from the associated malnutrition. Elevated serum corticosterone in both zinc deficient and pair-fed rats does not support the hypothesis that zinc deficiency per se leads to corticosterone-induced apoptosis and lymphopenia. In fact, the zinc deficient rat does not have lymphopenia. Thymocytes from zinc deficient mice and rats have elevated levels of p56lck, a signalling protein with a zinc clasp structure, but this does not appear to affect thymocyte maturation. However, post-thymic T-cell maturation appears to be altered based on the lower proportion of splenic late thymic emigrants in zinc deficient rats. Fewer new T-cells in the periphery could adversely affect the T-cell repertoire and contribute to immunodeficiency in zinc deficiency. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Enns J.E.,University of Manitoba | Enns J.E.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | Hanke D.,University of Manitoba | Hanke D.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2014

This study investigates the effects of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids from different fat sources (High Oleic Canola, Canola, Canola-Flaxseed (3:1 blend), Safflower, or Soybean Oil, or a Lard-based diet) on adipose tissue function and markers of inflammation in Obese Prone rats fed high-fat (55% energy) diets for 12 weeks. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition reflected the dietary fatty acid profiles. Protein levels of fatty acid synthase, but not mRNA levels, were lower in adipose tissue of all groups compared to the Lard group. Adiponectin and fatty acid receptors GPR41 and GPR43 protein levels were also altered, but other metabolic and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum were unchanged among groups. Overall, rats fed vegetable oil- or lard-based high-fat diets appear to be largely resistant to major phenotypic changes when the dietary fat composition is altered, providing little support for the importance of specific fatty acid profiles in the context of a high-fat diet. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Enns J.E.,University of Manitoba | Enns J.E.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | Yeganeh A.,University of Manitoba | Yeganeh A.,Canadian Center for Agri Food Research in Health and Medicine | And 7 more authors.
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders | Year: 2014

Background: Individuals with peripheral arterial disease are at higher risk for cardiovascular events than the general population. While supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to improve vascular function, it remains unclear if supplementation decreases serious clinical outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events and complications in adults with peripheral arterial disease.Methods: We searched five electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Scopus and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) from inception to 6 December 2013 to identify randomized trials of omega-3 PUFA supplementation (from fish or plant oils) that lasted ≥12 weeks in adults with peripheral arterial disease. No language filters were applied. Data on trial design, population characteristics, and health outcomes were extracted. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events; secondary outcomes included myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, stroke, angina, amputation, revascularization procedures, maximum and pain-free walking distance, adverse effects of the intervention, and quality of life. Trial quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool.Results: Of 741 citations reviewed, we included five trials enrolling 396 individuals. All included trials were of unclear or high risk of bias. There was no evidence of a protective association of omega-3 PUFA supplementation against major adverse cardiac events (pooled risk ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.22 to 2.41, I2 75%, 2 trials, 288 individuals) or other serious clinical outcomes. Adverse events and compliance were poorly reported.Conclusions: Our results showed that insufficient evidence exists to suggest a beneficial effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation in adults with peripheral arterial disease with regard to cardiovascular events and other serious clinical outcomes. © 2014 Enns et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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