Canada Manitoba Crop Diversification Center

Carberry, Canada

Canada Manitoba Crop Diversification Center

Carberry, Canada
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Mohr R.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Nelson A.,Canada Manitoba Crop Diversification Center | Tomasiewicz D.,Canada Saskatchewan Irrigation Diversification Center | McLaren D.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 6 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2015

Well-managed crop rotations contribute to high productivity and quality in subsequent crops, and neither excessively deplete nor increase soil nutrient levels. A field experiment was conducted in the year following completion of a 14-yr irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rotation study to assess the impact of preceding rotation on soil P, K and micronutrient concentrations, and on soybean (Glycine max) productivity, yield and seed nutrient levels. Soybean was grown on six established rotations [potato with canola (PC), wheat (PW), canola-wheat (PCW), oat-wheat (POW), wheat-canola-wheat (PWCW), and canola underseeded to alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa (PCAA)] arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates. Soil nutrient levels fell within ranges typical of the region, as did soybean yield and quality. Lower P and K concentrations in spring soil samples, and in soybean seeds, were typically associated with PCAA, suggesting that fertilizer additions did not account for high rates of P and K removal by alfalfa hay in this rotation. While preceding rotation had minimal effects on soil Cu and Zn, soybean established after PCAA or after potato contained comparatively higher seed Cu and Zn concentrations suggesting that including mycorrhizal crops such as potato and alfalfa in rotation may have contributed to enhanced micronutrient availability. Soybean yield was 4-6% higher following potato than canola or cereals, and 6% higher following POW than PCW. Seed protein increased and oil concentration decreased where preceding rotations included alfalfa. The limited yield differences observed may have been due, in part, to the selection of soybean as an indicator crop, which likely minimized differences among rotations arising from disease, weeds and nitrogen. These findings suggest that, with careful management of irrigated potato systems over the longer term, crop productivity and nutrient availability may be maintained within acceptable levels for agricultural production. © 2015, Agricultural Institute of Canada. All rights reserved.

Mohr R.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Volkmar K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Derksen D.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Irvine R.B.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2011

The productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) systems may be strongly influenced by rotation. A field study consisting of six rotations (potato with canola (PC), wheat (PW), canola-wheat (PCW), oat-wheat (POW), wheat-canola-wheat (PWCW), and canola underseeded to alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa (PCAA)) arranged as an RCBD was established on a clay loam in Manitoba, Canada in 1998 and monitored for twelve years to determine effects on potato yield and quality. Higher yields for canola-containing rotations were evident in three years (P < 0.10), but not beyond 2005. From 2007 onward, 2-year rotations produced a markedly lower yield than other rotations. Yields of 3- and 4-year rotations were similar, although PCW and PCAA were most frequently among the higher-yielding rotations. Overall, PC had a lower specific gravity than other rotations. Results suggest 3- and 4-year rotations, particularly PCW and PCAA, helped maintain productivity. Two-year rotations of PC and PW were not sustainable due to declining yields. © 2011 Potato Association of America.

Bizimungu B.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Holm D.G.,Colorado State University | Kawchuk L.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Konschuh M.,Crop Diversification Center South | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2011

Alta Crown (CV92028-1) is a new russet potato cultivar with resistance to common scab and a low incidence of tuber deformities. It was selected at the Lethbridge Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, from a cross made at Colorado State University, San Luis Valley Research Center between breeding clones AC83172-1RU and C086030-1RU. Alta Crown has semi-erect, short, and compact vines. The cultivar has uniform, oblong to long, medium to large tubers with a medium to dark russet skin, cream-colored flesh and shallow eyes. In trials across western Canada and Ontario, Alta Crown produced similar or lower total yields than did Russet Burbank and Shepody, but a higher percentage of marketable tuber yield at maincrop harvest, and at early harvest. The average weight of marketable tubers was superior to that of Russet Burbank at all sites, and to that of Shepody at some sites. Alta Crown exhibited resistance to tuber deformities, hollow heart and internal necrosis defects. Specific gravity of Alta Crown in western Canadian regional trials was similar to that of Shepody and Russet Burbank. Fry colour was also similar to Russet Burbank and Shepody in product quality evaluations. Alta Crown was identified as having resistance to common scab and was moderately resistant to late blight tuber rot and foliar early blight, but was susceptible to foliar late blight. It shows moderate foliar and tuber symptoms when infected with bacterial ring rot. A post-harvest laboratory testing is recommended to complement visual inspection. © 2010 Potato Association of America.

Molina O.I.,University of Manitoba | Tenuta M.,University of Manitoba | El Hadrami A.,Omex Agriculture Inc | Buckley K.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2014

Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a soilborne fungal pathogen of many crops. In potato, it is the major causal agent of Early Dying. In Manitoba, potato fields planted with cv. Russet Burbank are infested with highly pathogenic V. dahliae isolates, which can produce up to 90 % disease severity. The objective of the study was to evaluate selected compost, green manure, and seed-meal treatments, in comparison with the soil fumigant Vapam, for their ability to reduce propagule density of V. dahliae in soil and decrease disease, and to enhance potato yield. Select green manure crops (oriental and white mustard, Canada milk vetch, sorghum-sudangrass, rye, alfalfa, oat/pea mixture), organic amendments (composted cattle manure and mustard seed-meal), and Vapam, and crop sequences that contribute to the suppression of Verticillium, or the improvement of potato yield were used in a 3-year field study initiated in 2006. Survival in soil of microsclerotia was evaluated as a measure of treatments' success in potentially reducing Early Dying. Compost and seed-meal treatments, compared to an untreated control, reduced incidence to 30 and 40 %, respectively, but only seed-meal reduced V. dahliae propagule density. Overall, green manures over 1 or 2-years were ineffective in reducing propagule density or improving potato yield. Vapam was partially effective in reducing the propagule density only at the beginning of the potato season, but it did not reduce disease incidence compared to the control. Compost and seed-meal are promising as alternative control of V. dahliae. Only compost reduced disease and increased potato yield, which was associated with improved nutrient availability (phosphorus and sulfate) in soil. © 2014 The Author(s).

Khakbazan M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Mohr R.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Volkmar K.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Tomasiewicz D.J.,Canada Manitoba Crop Diversification Center | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2010

A crop rotation study was initiated in 1998 to develop recommendations for irrigated potato management in Manitoba. The objective of this paper was to assess the relative economic return for six crop rotations during the initial 8 years after rotations were imposed. The Potato-Canola (P-C) rotation generated higher net income especially from 2000-04, but the results indicated that the Potato-Canola-Wheat rotation was also among the higher-revenue generating rotations and was, therefore, a viable alternative to the shorter two-year rotations. While shorter rotations appeared to provide an economic advantage during the initial 8 years after the rotations were established, as this study continues, rotation will continue to affect the plant-soil system and economic performance. Continued monitoring of this study will provide a better understanding regarding which rotations will be the most sustainable and hence most profitable in the long term. © 2010 Potato Association of America.

Mohr R.M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Tomasiewicz D.J.,Canada Manitoba Crop Diversification Center
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2011

Phosphorus (P) fertilizer is routinely applied to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Manitoba, Canada; however, little information is available regarding P responses in this region. Field studies were conducted from 2003 through 2006 to determine the impact of P rate [0, 15, 29, 43 kg P ha -1 as broadcast incorporated monoammonium phosphate (MAP)] on Russet Burbank potato. Increasing P rate resulted in a linear increase in marketable yield in 2005, a quadratic increase in 2006, and no effect in 2003 and 2004. Phosphorus application had no effect on the yield of tubers <85 g, tuber number, or quality, but petiole P concentration and postharvest soil-test P levels increased with increasing P rate. Results of this and other studies show that P fertilization may improve potato yields, although increases are not completely predictable. Additional research is required to refine soil-test guidelines and petiole P sufficiency levels for this region. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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