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Veracruz, Mexico

Flota-Banuelos C.,Tizimin Institute of Technology | Imelda Martinez M.,Institute Ecologia | Lopez-Collado J.,Campus Veracruz | Mendoza M.V.,Campus Veracruz | And 2 more authors.
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2013

The spatial and temporal distribution of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle has been little studied in Mexico. Previous studies have described periods of higher larval presence, vertical and horizontal migration in grasslands, and the frequency of adult nematodes; as well as the effect of pasture trichomes on the migration and survival of Haemonchus larvae. The aim of this study was to determine the time-space layout and spread of gastrointestinal nematode larvae on pasture, and to estimate the effect of ivermectin applied to cattle on the time-dependent abundance of their eggs in a ranch in Veracruz. To determine the spatio-temporal arrangement, monthly morning grass samples were obtained from 30 sampling points from July 2008 to June 2009. Third stage larvae (L3) from each point were counted, and aggregation patterns were estimated through variance/mean and negative binomial K indices. Additionally, the number of eggs per gram in cattle feces was determined, from samples with (CI) and without ivermectin (SI), using standard techniques. A total of 20 276L3 larvae were recovered in the pasture, of which an 80% corresponded to Haemonchus contortus. The highest nematode density with more than 5 000L3/kgDM was detected in October 2008, and the lowest in February and March 2009. The L3 showed an aggregated spatial pattern of varying intensity throughout the year. The number of eggs in the stool was not reduced with the ivermectin application to cattle, which suggested a failure of control. However, the highest parasite loads were observed from July to November 2008. We concluded that the application of ivermectin was not effective to control nematodes eggs, and that L3 populations fluctuated on pasture for ten months, providing an infection source to grazing animals afterwards. Source


Campbell W.B.,Campus Veracruz | Jarillo-Rodriguez J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Lopez-Ortiz S.,Campus Veracruz | Castillo-Gallegos E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Rangeland Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

Stocking rate manipulation was examined as a means of improving plant diversity (as a measure of pasture sustainability and forage value) in a native grass pasture used for dairy production in the humid tropics of Veracruz, Mexico. Given that environmental impact reduces biotic diversity, plant phylogenetic and functional diversity should decline with increased stocking rate. Stocking rates of 2, 3, and 4 cows·ha-1 and a rotational grazing plan of 3 d of occupation and 27 d of rest per pasture were applied continuously over 5 yr. Across 200 quadrats in each of two replicate paddocks per treatment, observed species richness, phylogenetic diversity (average taxonomic distinctness based on species presence/absence), and functional diversity (life-cycle duration and growth habit) were assessed. Most species were forb/herbs and forb/herb-subshrubs. Perennial species declined with increased stocking rate (F=16.36, 0.05>P>0.02) while annual-perennial species increased (F=76.88, 0.01>P>0.005); the proportion of annual species was least prominent and did not differ significantly. Observed species richness and phylogenetic diversity did not differ significantly with stocking rate. The correlation between functional diversity for life-cycle duration and phylogenetic diversity was significant and positive, suggesting that plant communities were predominantly assembled randomly from the surrounding species pool rather than through interspecies interactions acting to naturally filter immigrant species, thus leading to more opportunistic and undesired species. Although grazing pressure was not sufficient to alter indices or production measures, they did reveal shifts that may precede further pasture decline, indicating pasture sustainability was not being achieved. These rapid assessment methods permit monitoring for early warnings of reductions in pasture sustainability and forage quality for cattle. © 2013 The Society for Range Management. Source

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