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Fontan-Sainz M.,Campus Universitario Sur | Fontan-Sainz M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Gomez-Couso H.,Campus Universitario Sur | Gomez-Couso H.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Water samples of 0, 5, and 30 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) spiked with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to natural sunlight using a 25-L static solar reactor fitted with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). The global oocyst viability was calculated by the evaluation of the inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide and the spontaneous excystation. After an exposure time of 8 hours, the global oocyst viabilities were 21.8 ± 3.1%, 31.3 ± 12.9%, and 45.0 ± 10.0% for turbidity levels of 0, 5, and 30 NTU, respectively, and these values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) that the initial global viability of the isolate (92.1 ± 0.9%). The 25-L static solar reactor that was evaluated can be an alternative system to the conventional solar water disinfection process for improving the microbiological quality of drinking water on a household level, and moreover, it enables treatment of larger volumes of water (> 10 times). Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Schrodl M.,Bavarian State collection of Zoology ZSM | Bohn J.M.,Bavarian State collection of Zoology ZSM | Brenke N.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Rolan E.,Campus Universitario Sur | Schwabe E.,Bavarian State collection of Zoology ZSM
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2011

Mollusca are widely used for deriving concepts on deep-sea biology and biodiversity, yet abyssal collections are limited to only a few regions of the world ocean and biased toward the northern Atlantic. The present study compares gastropod molluscs sampled along a transect through the southern Atlantic from the equator to Antarctica. The DIVA I and II expeditions concentrated on the hardly explored Guinea, Angola, and Cape Basins. Of the 145 deep-sea deployments (5025-5656m depth) analyzed to date, 20 have yielded 68 specimens of benthic gastropods, representing 27 species. Only five abyssal species were previously known, four of them from the northern Atlantic deep sea; the remainder appear to be undescribed. Interestingly, there is no faunal overlap with the nearby Antarctic deep-sea. Most of these DIVA species (63%) are represented by single individuals, or limited to one or two stations. The rarity (i.e. 0.55 specimens m-2 calculated from quantitative corers) and still undetectable patchiness of southeastern Atlantic abyssal gastropods may indicate "source-sink" dynamics, but comparison is needed with thus far hardly explored regional bathyal faunas. The BRENKE-epibenthic sledge (EBS) may be efficient at surveying the abyssal gastropod species richness, but is shown to drastically underestimate true abundances. Low diversity values throughout the three southern Atlantic ocean basins do further challenge earlier estimates of a hyperdiverse global abyssal macrofauna. Comparative EBS data available from the southern hemisphere indicate a gradient from the equatorial Guinea Basin towards higher gastropod abundances and diversity in Antarctica. This is in clear contrast to the paradigm of a globally strongly decreasing marine diversity from lower to higher latitudes, highlighting the importance of further exploring the southern fauna from the tropics to Antarctica. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Collin R.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Rolan E.,Campus Universitario Sur
Veliger | Year: 2010

Spiny slipper shells in the genus Bostrycapulus range worldwide in tropical and temperate oceans. Owing to the scarcity of samples that retain the defining characteristics of the genus, the species from tropical Africa and the Indo-Pacific are poorly known. Here we present data showing that samples oí Bostrycapulus from the Cape Verde Islands and Senegal are distinct from each other and distinct from other known Bostrycapulus species. These two species can be distinguished from each other by the unique caplike protoconch found on the shells from Senegal and the coiled globose protoconchs typical of direct-developing species on the shells from the Cape Verde Islands. Genetically, samples from Senegal and the Cape Verde Islands are distinct. DNA sequences from Senegal are very similar to those of Bostrycapulus odites, which occurs in the South Atlantic (South Africa, Argentina, and Brazil) while those from Cape Verde are closest to Bostrycapulus aculeatus from Florida. The name Bostrycapulus tegulicius is available, and the single existing protoconch on the types in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, appears to match those from the Cape Verde Islands. Subtle variation in protoconch size and shape throughout the Cape Verde Islands suggests that there may be more than a single species in the archipelago. Unfortunately, too little material is available to rule out intraspecific variation or to support the description of additional new species from the Cape Verde Islands. Here, we augment the original description of B. tegulicius and describe the unique new species Bostrycapulus heteropoma n. sp. from Senegal. © CMS, Inc., 2008.


Chimenti F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Secci D.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bolasco A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Chimenti P.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Novel 1-(4-arylthiazol-2-yl)-2-(3-methylcyclohexylidene)hydrazine derivatives have been investigated for their ability to inhibit selectively the activity of the human B isoform of monoamine oxidase. These compounds were obtained as racemates and (R)-enantiomers by a stereoconservative synthetic pattern in high yield and enantiomeric excess. The (S)-enantiomers of the most active derivatives have been separated by enantioselective HPLC. All compounds showed selective activity against hMAO-B with IC50 ranging between 21.90 and 0.018 μM. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Desideri N.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Fioravanti R.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Proietti Monaco L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Biava M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

A series of (2E,4E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylpenta-2,4-dien-1-ones (3a-r) and (2Z,4E)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylpenta-2,4-dien-1-ones (6a-l) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as inhibitors of the two human Monoamine oxidase (hMAO) isoforms, MAO-A and MAO-B. Most of the compounds showed a selective MAO-B inhibitory activity in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. (2E,4E)-5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (3g) and (2E,4E)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (3h) were the most potent hMAO-B inhibitors exhibiting IC50 of 4.51 nM and 11.35 nM, respectively, coupled with high selectivity. Moreover, partial recovery of MAO-B activity was observed after repeated washing in the presence of isatin (reversible inhibitor) and compounds 3g and 3h suggesting a reversible inhibition of the enzyme. Molecular mechanics and quantum chemistry methods were used to elucidate the MAO recognition of the most active inhibitors 3g and 3h.© 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Codesido V.,CINAM Lourizan | Codesido V.,Campus Universitario Sur | Zas R.,CINAM Lourizan | Fernandez-Lopez J.,CINAM Lourizan
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

Individual and family heritabilities and juvenile-mature genetic correlations were estimated for growth and biomass traits recorded in treatment with optimal and limiting water and/or nutrient availability to study how the different growth environments affected genetic parameter estimates. Thirty open-pollinated families, randomly selected among the 58 families used in field progeny tests in Galicia, were cultivated for 30 weeks in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. Two water regimes (high and low water supply) combined with two nutrient regimes (high and low nutrient supply) were applied by subirrigation. Several growth, branching and dry mass traits were assessed 30 weeks after sowing and compared with field performance (height, diameter and volume) of 4-year-old progeny tests established at three different sites in Galicia (NW Spain). Both the irrigation and the fertilization treatments had a strong effect in all the assessed traits except irrigation for the number of branches. Heritabilities for growth and biomass traits were moderate to high (0.13-0.77) in individual treatments. However, when analyzing all treatments together, the impact of the family × treatment interactions led to a reduction (0.20-0.35) in the heritability estimates. The results indicated that the genotype × water and genotype × nutrient interactions may be important and could not be ignored in the Galician radiata pine breeding program. Climatic chamber-field correlations were different between different traits measured at climatic chamber experiments and the three field tests. The correlations were larger with the well-watered treatments, suggesting that further development of early testing methods for radiata pine in Galicia should include treatments with no limiting water availability. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Chimenti F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Carradori S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Secci D.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bolasco A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

A series of N1-thiocarbamoyl-3,5-di(hetero)aryl-4,5-dihydro-(1H)-pyrazole derivatives has been synthesized and assayed for their ability to inhibit the activity of the A and B isoforms of human monoamine oxidase (hMAO). Some of these compounds were endowed with a selective inhibitory activity against hMAO-B in the micromolar range. The most active of the series is the compound 13, N1-thiocarbamoyl-3-(fur-2′-yl)-5-(4′-fluoro-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-(1H)-pyrazole, with IC50 2.75 ± 0.81 μM value and selectivity ratio of 25, which is the best candidate for further investigations. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Gomez-Couso H.,Campus Universitario Sur | Fontan-Sainz M.,Campus Universitario Sur | Ares-Mazas E.,Campus Universitario Sur
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

To determine the thermal contribution, independent of ultraviolet radiation, on the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum during solar water disinfection procedures (SODIS), oocysts were exposed for 4, 8, and 12 hours to temperatures recorded in polyethylene terephthalate bottles in previous SODIS studies carried out under field conditions. Inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide, spontaneous excystation, and infectivity studies were used to determine the inactivation of oocysts. There was a significant increase in the percentage of oocysts that took up propidium iodide and in the number of oocysts that excysted spontaneously. There was also a significant decrease in the intensity of infection elicited in suckling mice at the end of all exposure times. The results of the study demonstrate the importance of temperature in the inactivation of C. parvum oocysts during application of SODIS under natural conditions. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Vazquez I.,Campus Universitario sur | Sandez E.,Campus Universitario sur | Gonzalez-Freire B.,Campus Universitario sur | Romero-Frais E.,Campus Universitario sur | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Asthma | Year: 2010

Background. Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in perceiving and expressing emotions. The relationship between alexithymia and health outcomes in asthma has been shown in a scarce number of studies, in which alexithymia has been considered as an homogeneous construct and the confounding potential effect of anxiety and depression has not been controlled for. Objectives. To determine the relationship between each of the three dimensions of alexithymia as assessed with the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia ScaleDifficulty Identifying Feelings, Difficulty Describing Feelings, and Externally Oriented Thinkingand health-related quality of life and utilization of health care services, controlling anxiety and depression. Methods. Patients with moderate to severe asthma between 18 and 65 years old filled in the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Short-Form 36 Health Survey, the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, the Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Cognitive Depression Index. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and the frequency of emergency room visits and hospitalizations due to asthma during the following 24 months was recorded. Data were analyzed using the 2 test, the Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman correlations and multiple linear regression analyses. Results. A total of 76 patients took part in the study (42.67 ± 15.33 years; 59.2 female; 81.6 severe asthma). Data on emergency room visits during the 24-month follow-up were collected for 42 patients; 13 of them (30.95) with at least one emergency room visit during the follow-up. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, clinical variables, anxiety, and depression, the Difficulty Describing Feelings factor was related to dimensions of the Short-Form 36 Health Survey: Physical Functioning (p=.021), RolePhysical (p=0.025), and the Physical Component Score (p=.012). The Difficulty Identifying Feelings factor was associated with a higher frequency of emergency room visits (p=.005). The Externally Oriented Thinking factor was not related to any of the dependent measures. Conclusions. Two dimensions of alexithymia, Difficulty Identifying Feelings and Difficulty Describing Feelings, are complicating factors in the management of asthma, but they operate via different mechanisms and over different outcomes and the effects of alexithymia remain even while controlling for the confounding effect of anxiety and depression. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


PubMed | Campus Universitario Sur
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire) | Year: 2014

Adolescence is usually the time when individuals first drink alcohol and this has been associated with relatively weak or immature inhibitory control. This review examines the changes on brain development and inhibitory function that take place during adolescence and youth as well as the relationship between inhibitory control and alcohol use at this early age.Narrative review of the chief studies related to (a) the development of inhibitory control during adolescence, (b) the deficits in the inhibitory ability in alcohol use disorders and (c) the effects of acute alcohol intake and binge drinking on inhibitory control in adolescents and young adults.Inhibitory control processes are developing during adolescence and youth. Poor inhibitory functions may predispose the individual to alcohol misuse. Likewise, acute and binge alcohol drinking may impair the inhibitory control and compromise the ability to prevent or stop behaviour related to alcohol use.Poor inhibitory control can be both the cause and the consequence of excessive alcohol use. Adolescence and young adulthood may be a particularly vulnerable period due to (a) the weak or immature inhibitory functioning typical of this stage may contribute to the inability of the individual to control alcohol use and (b) alcohol consumption per se may alter or interrupt the proper development of inhibitory control leading to a reduced ability to regulate alcohol intake. Further longitudinal research is needed to evaluate the interaction between inhibitory control dysfunction and alcohol use in both situations.

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