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Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Codesido V.,CINAM Lourizan | Codesido V.,Campus Universitario sur | Zas R.,CINAM Lourizan | Fernandez-Lopez J.,CINAM Lourizan
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

Individual and family heritabilities and juvenile-mature genetic correlations were estimated for growth and biomass traits recorded in treatment with optimal and limiting water and/or nutrient availability to study how the different growth environments affected genetic parameter estimates. Thirty open-pollinated families, randomly selected among the 58 families used in field progeny tests in Galicia, were cultivated for 30 weeks in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. Two water regimes (high and low water supply) combined with two nutrient regimes (high and low nutrient supply) were applied by subirrigation. Several growth, branching and dry mass traits were assessed 30 weeks after sowing and compared with field performance (height, diameter and volume) of 4-year-old progeny tests established at three different sites in Galicia (NW Spain). Both the irrigation and the fertilization treatments had a strong effect in all the assessed traits except irrigation for the number of branches. Heritabilities for growth and biomass traits were moderate to high (0.13-0.77) in individual treatments. However, when analyzing all treatments together, the impact of the family × treatment interactions led to a reduction (0.20-0.35) in the heritability estimates. The results indicated that the genotype × water and genotype × nutrient interactions may be important and could not be ignored in the Galician radiata pine breeding program. Climatic chamber-field correlations were different between different traits measured at climatic chamber experiments and the three field tests. The correlations were larger with the well-watered treatments, suggesting that further development of early testing methods for radiata pine in Galicia should include treatments with no limiting water availability. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Schrodl M.,Bavarian State Collection of Zoology ZSM | Bohn J.M.,Bavarian State Collection of Zoology ZSM | Brenke N.,German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research | Rolan E.,Campus Universitario sur | Schwabe E.,Bavarian State Collection of Zoology ZSM
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2011

Mollusca are widely used for deriving concepts on deep-sea biology and biodiversity, yet abyssal collections are limited to only a few regions of the world ocean and biased toward the northern Atlantic. The present study compares gastropod molluscs sampled along a transect through the southern Atlantic from the equator to Antarctica. The DIVA I and II expeditions concentrated on the hardly explored Guinea, Angola, and Cape Basins. Of the 145 deep-sea deployments (5025-5656m depth) analyzed to date, 20 have yielded 68 specimens of benthic gastropods, representing 27 species. Only five abyssal species were previously known, four of them from the northern Atlantic deep sea; the remainder appear to be undescribed. Interestingly, there is no faunal overlap with the nearby Antarctic deep-sea. Most of these DIVA species (63%) are represented by single individuals, or limited to one or two stations. The rarity (i.e. 0.55 specimens m-2 calculated from quantitative corers) and still undetectable patchiness of southeastern Atlantic abyssal gastropods may indicate "source-sink" dynamics, but comparison is needed with thus far hardly explored regional bathyal faunas. The BRENKE-epibenthic sledge (EBS) may be efficient at surveying the abyssal gastropod species richness, but is shown to drastically underestimate true abundances. Low diversity values throughout the three southern Atlantic ocean basins do further challenge earlier estimates of a hyperdiverse global abyssal macrofauna. Comparative EBS data available from the southern hemisphere indicate a gradient from the equatorial Guinea Basin towards higher gastropod abundances and diversity in Antarctica. This is in clear contrast to the paradigm of a globally strongly decreasing marine diversity from lower to higher latitudes, highlighting the importance of further exploring the southern fauna from the tropics to Antarctica. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Collin R.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Rolan E.,Campus Universitario sur
Veliger | Year: 2010

Spiny slipper shells in the genus Bostrycapulus range worldwide in tropical and temperate oceans. Owing to the scarcity of samples that retain the defining characteristics of the genus, the species from tropical Africa and the Indo-Pacific are poorly known. Here we present data showing that samples oí Bostrycapulus from the Cape Verde Islands and Senegal are distinct from each other and distinct from other known Bostrycapulus species. These two species can be distinguished from each other by the unique caplike protoconch found on the shells from Senegal and the coiled globose protoconchs typical of direct-developing species on the shells from the Cape Verde Islands. Genetically, samples from Senegal and the Cape Verde Islands are distinct. DNA sequences from Senegal are very similar to those of Bostrycapulus odites, which occurs in the South Atlantic (South Africa, Argentina, and Brazil) while those from Cape Verde are closest to Bostrycapulus aculeatus from Florida. The name Bostrycapulus tegulicius is available, and the single existing protoconch on the types in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, appears to match those from the Cape Verde Islands. Subtle variation in protoconch size and shape throughout the Cape Verde Islands suggests that there may be more than a single species in the archipelago. Unfortunately, too little material is available to rule out intraspecific variation or to support the description of additional new species from the Cape Verde Islands. Here, we augment the original description of B. tegulicius and describe the unique new species Bostrycapulus heteropoma n. sp. from Senegal. © CMS, Inc., 2008. Source

Fontan-Sainz M.,Campus Universitario sur | Fontan-Sainz M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Gomez-Couso H.,Campus Universitario sur | Gomez-Couso H.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Water samples of 0, 5, and 30 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) spiked with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to natural sunlight using a 25-L static solar reactor fitted with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). The global oocyst viability was calculated by the evaluation of the inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide and the spontaneous excystation. After an exposure time of 8 hours, the global oocyst viabilities were 21.8 ± 3.1%, 31.3 ± 12.9%, and 45.0 ± 10.0% for turbidity levels of 0, 5, and 30 NTU, respectively, and these values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) that the initial global viability of the isolate (92.1 ± 0.9%). The 25-L static solar reactor that was evaluated can be an alternative system to the conventional solar water disinfection process for improving the microbiological quality of drinking water on a household level, and moreover, it enables treatment of larger volumes of water (> 10 times). Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Gomez-Couso H.,Campus Universitario sur | Fontan-Sainz M.,Campus Universitario sur | Ares-Mazas E.,Campus Universitario sur
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

To determine the thermal contribution, independent of ultraviolet radiation, on the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum during solar water disinfection procedures (SODIS), oocysts were exposed for 4, 8, and 12 hours to temperatures recorded in polyethylene terephthalate bottles in previous SODIS studies carried out under field conditions. Inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide, spontaneous excystation, and infectivity studies were used to determine the inactivation of oocysts. There was a significant increase in the percentage of oocysts that took up propidium iodide and in the number of oocysts that excysted spontaneously. There was also a significant decrease in the intensity of infection elicited in suckling mice at the end of all exposure times. The results of the study demonstrate the importance of temperature in the inactivation of C. parvum oocysts during application of SODIS under natural conditions. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

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