Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro

Puerto Real, Spain

Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro

Puerto Real, Spain
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Sarasquete C.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Ubeda-Manzanaro M.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Ortiz-Delgado J.B.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2017

This study examines the effects induced by environmentally relevant concentrations of the isoflavone genistein (3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) during early life stages of the Senegalese sole. Throughout the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, several neurohormonal regulatory thyroid signalling patterns (thyroglobulin/Tg, thyroid peroxidase/TPO, transthyretin/TTR, thyroid receptors/TRβ, and iodothrynonine deiodinases, Dio2 and Dio3) were analysed. Furthermore, the expression patterns of estrogen receptor ERβ and haemoprotein Cyp1a were also evaluated. In the control larvae, progressive increases of constitutive hormonal signalling pathways have been evidenced from the pre-metamorphosis phase onwards, reaching the highest expression basal levels at the metamorphosis (Tg, TPO, Dio2) and/or during post-metamorphosis (TTR, TRβ, ERβ). When the early larvae were exposed to both genistein concentrations (3 mg/L and 10 mg/L), a statistically significant down-regulation of TPO, TTR and Tg mRNA levels was clearly detected at the metamorphic stages. In addition, the Dio2 and Dio3 transcript expression levels were also down and up-regulated when exposed to both genistein concentrations. In the larvae exposed to genistein, no statistically significant responses were recorded for the TRβ expression patterns. Nevertheless, the ERβ and Cyp1a transcript levels were up-regulated at the middle metamorphic stage (S2, at 16 dph) in the larvae exposed to high genistein concentrations and, only the ERβ was down-regulated (S1, at 12 dph) at the lower doses. Finally, all these pointed out imbalances were only temporarily disrupted by exposure to genistein, since most of the modulated transcriptional signals (i.e. up or down-regulation) were quickly restored to the baseline levels. Additionally, the control and genistein-exposed Senegalese sole specimens showed characteristic ontogenetic patterns and completely suitable for an optimal development, metamorphosis, and growth. © 2017


Ortiz-Delgado J.B.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Sarasquete C.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2012

Vertebral deformities constitute a recurrent problem in farmed teleost fish species. Potential causes of skeletal deformities are associated with genetic, environmental and nutritional factors. Considering nutritional factors, previous studies have shown that nutritional vitamin A (VA) imbalance implied the appearance of vertebral deformities in marine fish larvae; however, information about the effects of VA on bone homeostasis in juveniles is scarce. A study of vertebral bone tissue homeostasis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles fed with two dietary VA levels was performed by means of histological (Haematoxylin-Eosin, Alcian blue - PAS, Haematoxylin - VOF and Picrosirius red staining) and histochemical (immunostaining for bone and matrix Gla protein; OC and MGP, respectively) approaches. Fish were fed with two diets containing 2.5×104 (control) and 2.3×106 (hypervitaminosis A group) IU total VA kg-1 during 6months. Results showed that gilthead sea bream juveniles were not affected in terms of growth or survival rate by nutritional hypervitaminosis A, whereas the homeostasis of the vertebral bone was altered. Vertebral bodies from the control and VA fed fish showed differences in their morphological and biochemical composition at the growth zone of the vertebral end-plates. Picrosirius red staining revealed that vertebral end-plates and the trabecular bone layer from control and VA fed fish presented different diameter in collagen fibers. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased protein levels of MGP and BGP in the notochord from gilthead sea bream juveniles fed hypervitaminosis A. Results suggest that hypervitaminosis A alter bone homeostasis through an accelerated bone mineralization, which might increase mechanical load between adjacent vertebrae and induce vertebral compression/fusion through a bone remodelling process. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.


Ortiz-Delgado J.B.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Hontoria F.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Csic | Sarasquete C.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

Proper nutrition at first feeding in marine fish larvae is an important factor for successful larval rearing. However, live prey used to feed marine finfish larvae lack essential fatty acids requiring commercial hatcheries to enrich live prey to provide a balanced diet. Currently, the many commercially available enrichments for live prey present considerable differences in their formulas, and compositions of essential nutrients. Since nutritional requirements are species-specific it is necessary to define those enrichments most appropriate for each species in terms of larval development and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of six enrichments on Senegalese sole larval performance including growth, digestive system development and skeletogenesis, to determine whether any of these products are more suitable for Senegalese sole larval rearing. From 8 to 37 days post hatching (dph), larvae were fed Artemia nauplii previously enriched with six different formulae: Easy Selco© (INVE, ES), Easy Selco© (INVE) half diluted with olive oil (ES/2), Multigain© (BioMar, MG), Red Pepper© (Bernaqua, RP), Aquagrow Gold© (ABN, AGG) and Aquagrow DHA© (ABN, AGD), with the last two being diluted by a third with olive oil. The dietary treatments significantly affected larval growth and performance; larvae fed Artemia enriched with AGG presented significantly higher final dry weight (2.0 ± 0.4 mg), growth and intestinal maturation than larvae fed ES-enriched Artemia (final dry weight: 1.1 ± 0.3 mg). Larvae fed the AGG treatment also were those most advanced in metamorphosis and ossification processes. Larvae fed ES/2, RP, AGD and MG treatments presented intermediary values for all these parameters. No significant effect of the dietary treatments was detected in final survival and incidence of skeletal deformities. We conclude that, among the enrichments tested, AGG is the most appropriate for larvae of Senegalese sole. © 2011.


Lapresta-Fernandez A.,University of Seville | Fernandez A.,University of Seville | Blasco J.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly being incorporated into commercial products. A better understanding is required of their environmental impacts in aquatic ecosystems.This review deals with the ecotoxicity effects of silver and gold ENPs (AgNPs and AuNPs) in aquatic organisms, and considers the means by which these ENPs enter aquatic environments, their aggregation status and their toxicity. Since ENPs are transported horizontally and vertically in the water column, we discuss certain factors (e.g., salinity and the presence of natural organic materials), as they cause variations in the degree of aggregation, size range and ENP toxicity. We pay special attention to oxidative stress induced in organisms by ENPs.We describe some of the main analytical methods used to determine reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activity, DNA damage, protein modifications, lipid peroxidation and relevant metabolic activities. We offer an overview of the mechanisms of action of AgNPs and AuNPs and the ways that relevant environmental factors can affect their speciation, agglomeration or aggregation, and ultimately their bio-availability to aquatic organisms.Finally, we discuss similarities and differences in the adverse effects of ENPs in freshwater and salt-water systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Darias M.J.,IRD Montpellier | Sarasquete C.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Ortiz-Delgado J.B.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology | Year: 2012

How lipid content and composition in the diet is utilized by the various organs and tissues of fish is reflected in their structure, such as the intestine through which dietary lipids are digested and absorbed, the vascular system which is involved in their transport, and the liver where lipids are stored and metabolized. However, no study has been conducted to compare the effect of different diets containing different levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and essential fatty acids (EFA) on lipid deposition in fish larvae and early juveniles. Thus, we evaluated the effects of six isolipidic diets (enriched Artemia salina), differing in their fatty acid profile, on the lipid accumulation patterns in selected target tissues (intestine, liver and vascular system) in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae and early juveniles. Results showed that the profile of fat accumulation in these three tissues was significantly affected by the dietary treatments, the developmental stage of the fish (premetamorphosis, metamorphosis or postmetamorphosis), as well as by the interaction between these two factors that were responsible for changes in the histological organization of the tissues. Histological results revealed that a slight variation in the EFA levels (e.g. EPA, DHA or ARA) or in their ratios (EPA/DHA, ARA/EPA, ARA/DHA, (n-3)/(n-6) HUFA, OA/PUFA) modified the metabolism of lipids and disrupted the pattern of lipid accumulation in the target tissues, leading to intestinal and hepatic steatosis. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Garcia-Negrete C.A.,University of Seville | Blasco J.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Volland M.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Rojas T.C.,University of Seville | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

The degree of aggregation and/or coalescence of Au-citrate nanoparticles (AuNPs, mean size 21.5 ± 2.9 nm), after delivery in simulated seawater, are shown to be concentration-dependent. At low concentrations no coalescence and only limited aggregation of primary particles were found. Experiments were performed in which the marine bivalve (Ruditapes philippinarum) was exposed to AuNPs or dissolved Au and subsequently, bivalve tissues were studied by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy and chemical analyses. We show that the bivalve accumulates gold in both cases within either the digestive gland or gill tissues, in different concentrations (including values of predicted environmental relevance). After 28 days of exposure, electron-dense deposits (corresponding to AuNPs, as proven by X-ray microanalysis) were observed in the heterolysosomes of the digestive gland cells. Although non-measurable solubility of AuNPs in seawater was found, evidence is presented of the toxicity produced by Au3+ dissolved species (chloroauric acid solutions) and its relevance is discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Echeveste P.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Echeveste P.,Federal University of São Carlos | Tovar-Sanchez A.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Tovar-Sanchez A.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2014

Large amounts of pollutants reach polar regions, particularly the Arctic, impacting their communities. In this study we analyzed the toxic levels of Hg, Cd and Pb to natural phytoplankton communities of the Arctic and Southern Oceans, and compared their sensitivities with those observed on phytoplankton natural communities from temperate areas. Mercury was the most toxic metal for both Arctic and Antarctic communities, while both Cd and Pb were toxic only for the Antarctic phytoplankton. Total cell abundance of the populations forming the Arctic community increased under high Cd and Pb concentrations, probably due to a decrease of the grazing pressure or the increase of the most resistant species, although analysis of individual cells indicated that cell death was already induced at the highest levels. These results suggest that phytoplankton may have acquired adapting mechanisms to face high levels of Pb and Cd in the Arctic Ocean. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rodellas V.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Garcia-Orellana J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Tovar-Sanchez A.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Tovar-Sanchez A.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | And 6 more authors.
Marine Chemistry | Year: 2014

Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) from a detrital coastal aquifer into the adjacent marine environment was investigated in a Mediterranean bay (Palma Beach, Balearic Islands). In this region, agriculture and tourism are potential sources of groundwater contamination. A survey in the Palma Beach revealed N, Fe and chlorophyll a enhancement associated to areas of preferential groundwater discharge from the nearby coastal aquifer. Groundwater sampling from wells and coastal piezometers indicated high concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and Fe (up to 2800μmolL-1 and 8100nmolL-1, respectively). Other nutrients, such as DIP, and trace elements were not particularly elevated, which is attributed to the adsorptive characteristics of the carbonated composition of this detrital aquifer and/or the lack of major sources. Cross-shore gradients of 223,224,226Ra isotopes indicated a diffusive shore-based source of these radionuclides and allowed estimates of a SGD flow of 56,000±13,000m3d-1. Our results show that SGD is a major pathway for delivering DIN (1900mmolm-1d-1), dissolved Fe (4.1mmolm-1d-1) and, to a lesser extent, DIP (16mmolm-1d-1) into the nearshore waters. This allochthonous input may sustain a substantial phytoplankton biomass resulting in an onshore-offshore gradient (4.7-7.1mgm-3 in nearshore seawater as compared with <1mgm-3 in offshore stations). This work emphasizes the relevance of SGD-driven nutrient and trace metal inputs in the regulation of nearshore phytoplankton communities of oligotrophic areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Tornero V.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Arias A.M.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Blasco J.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro
Environmental Research | Year: 2011

Ten years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill, the decline in metal contamination in the area is evident. However, some elements are still found in elevated concentrations. In Scrobicularia plana, zinc, lead, and arsenic exceeded health advisory levels at several locations although there is no indication of risks associated with consumption of this mollusc. The estuary seems to have enhanced the bioavailability of arsenic and lead. Research should continue to understand the significance of this contamination. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Nieto E.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Blasco J.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Gonzalez-Ortegon E.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Drake P.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro | Hampel M.,Campus Universitario Rio San Pedro
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2013

Single and mixture toxicity tests on three pharmaceutical compounds, Diclofenac (DF), Ibuprofen (IB) and Carbamazepine (CBZ), were carried out with the freshwater shrimp Atyaephyra desmarestii. Lethal and sublethal responses were analyzed for single compounds. Lethal concentrations (LC50) obtained for each individual compound, after 96h of exposure, were 6.3mgL-1 for DF, 13.3mgL-1 for IB and 94.3mgL-1 for CBZ. The selected sublethal endpoints of food ingestion, osmoregulatory capacity and respiration rates were not affected by the exposures to environmentally-relevant concentrations. Based on mortality data obtained, the predictive no effect concentration (PNEC) was calculated for each of the compounds, and compared with predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) reported in surface waters. The environmental risk of each compound was estimated as the ratio between PEC/PNEC, and indicated that IB could represent a medium risk in freshwater environments. Additionally, binary and ternary mixture toxicity assays of the selected compounds were carried out. The data obtained was applied to two predictive toxicity models: Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA). Finally, risk assessment was estimated using risk quotients (RQ) for the compound mixtures based on EC50 and LC50 values. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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